Dreams of pure and surround sound in a car are easy to realize. All that is required of you is to have a minimum amount of knowledge about acoustics, choose the main elements of the system correctly and determine the place for their installation. We will pay attention to these aspects in the article.
Types of car speakers
There are two types of speaker systems on the market today:
- Coaxial speakers are made in the form of columns. It consists of 2-3 speakers of different frequencies. The main advantage of the equipment is ease of installation. There is no need to drill anything and make additional holes in the panels. But because of the desire to simplify the design, the main drawback of such systems “floats out” is the low quality of manufacture. But there is no certainty. If you choose acoustics from a well-known brand and at an affordable price, the design and quality will be excellent. The main thing when choosing is to pay attention to the technical characteristics, material and workmanship of the column base.
It looks like coaxial car speakers
It looks like component acoustics
But there are pluses - with proper installation, you can achieve purity and maximum sound power. The main thing is to pay attention to the sensitivity and power of the device. An important question is the dimensions of the speakers, which should look good in the interior of the cabin.
3-component car speakers
High-quality automotive 3-component acoustics is a set of interconnected speakers that can reproduce frequencies in audio format at strictly defined frequencies. In the event that 2 or 3-component acoustics are installed at the same time on the car, the motorist will be able to easily reach the available frequencies.
Car speakers Pride WS165.3
At the same time, a high-quality connection according to the connection scheme of auto acoustics will help you adjust the sound to a wide variety of sound ranges.
At the same time, the advantages of such a 3-cm 16 cm speaker system are that:
- the possibility of precise adjustment,
- ability to fine tune sound,
- the ability to install additional type of components (crossovers, amplifiers),
- the ability to tune a particular speaker in order to reproduce a specific frequency spectrum.
According to the review, the branded Pride Wild Sould 165.3 or Focal models have their advantages, including:
- Diversity setting
- the ability to use crossovers,
- the ability to adjust the sound yourself.
At the same time, the same Pride Wild Sould 165.3 or Hertz model has some disadvantages:
- some high cost of high-quality acoustics,
- installation related to some professional skills,
- the need for special podiums and materials for sound insulation.
What is 3-way component acoustics
It should be noted that high-quality automotive 3-component acoustics is a combination of three main components:
At the same time, 3-component acoustics, including 16-cm band loudspeakers, are characterized by power, sensitivity and impedance of the speakers. It is worth clarifying that the 3-way component acoustics is characterized by the presence of three speakers capable of reproducing low-frequency frequencies, medium and high frequencies.
Hertz MPK 163.3 PRO 3-component acoustics
As a rule, the connection diagram of the strip-type acoustics is similar, but its performance varies.
The cost of services for the installation of acoustics + add. services
Installation of three-component acoustics
- in a regular place 3-5 hours 4,500-6,000 rubles. - in a regular place with completion (plastic) 3-5 hours 4,500-7,000 rubles. - to a regular place with completion (metal) 3-5 hours 4,500–7,500 rubles. - in an emergency place 3-6 hours 5000–7500 rubles.
Free services (during installation)
Diagnostics of malfunctions 0 / 500–1500 rub. Selection of audio components 5 min - 1 h for free Acoustic setup (during installation) for free
Acoustic workshop related services
Audio preparation from an hour from 1000 rubles. Installation (installation) of coaxial acoustics 2–4 hours from 1400 rubles. Installation (installation) of broadband acoustics 2–4 hours from 1600 rubles. Installation (installation) of two-component acoustics 2–5 hours from 3500 rubles. Installation (installation) of subwoofers 1-4 hours from 500 rubles. Installation (installation) of radio tape recorders from 15 minutes from 500 rubles. Installing a tablet instead of a radio 1-3 days 6000-12000 rubles. Radio firmware 1–4 h 500–3000 rub. Installation of a sound amplifier from an hour from 1000 rubles. Installation (installation) of the processor with the setting of 4-6 hours 1500-4000 rubles. Installation (installation) of antennas from 30 minutes from 800 rubles. Production of podiums for acoustics from an hour from 1000 rubles. Production of spacer rings 1-4 hours from 400 rubles. Production of the subwoofer enclosure 1-7 days from 3000 rubles. Production of false panels from an hour from 1500 rubles. Organization of radio control on the steering wheel from an hour from 2500 rubles. Organization of the control interface from an hour from 1,500 rubles. Reinforcing work from 500 rubles. Dismantling and assembly of interior elements from 30 minutes from 300 rubles. Capacitor installation (storage) 1 hour 600–1500 rub. Installation of the crossover 1 hour 800–1200 rubles.
How does the connection scheme of 3-component acoustics work?
So, car 3-component acoustics can differ in the type of its acoustic design, they are:
- open housing - with this connection scheme for car speakers, including 16 cm, all the speaker heads are displayed on the front of the cabinet,
- connection diagram for 3-component acoustics, which includes the use of a bass reflex,
- acoustic design of the "Labyrinth" type, which involves the installation of a head on the front wall, and a diffuser on the rear wall,
- The 3-component acoustics of 16 cm can be installed according to the “Horn” type scheme, which increases the efficiency and allows you to increase the sound volume at low amplifier power.
A constant review of high-quality acoustics allows you to choose for yourself a high-quality audio system that will allow you to pass the long road by listening to songs and audio books.
For many motorists, the idea of an audio system comes down to the most primitive scheme - there is a head unit (radio) and several elements that reproduce sound - speakers - connected to it. In reality, everything is more complicated, since sound is reproduced at different frequencies (low, medium, high) and each of them is transmitted by a certain type of speaker.
- Low frequencies reproduced by low-frequency speakers - subbass (subbass). They can be either separate elements or be included in the design of subwoofers.
- Mid-range low frequencies reproduced by midbass. In budget audio systems, this type of speaker is used as the main one for bass transmission, since there are no sub-basses. Therefore, midbass can play the role of rear speakers, and used in the front to enhance low frequencies.
- Mid-range sound reproduced by mid-range speakers. In budget audio systems, this type of speakers is not used, and the range of these sound frequencies is divided between midbasses and tweeters.
- High frequency sound transmitted by the respective speakers, called tweeters (tweeter, popularly - tweeters).
You can even determine the sound of what frequency a particular speaker transmits visually, since the acoustic elements vary in size. Subbasses and midbasses are bulky. The diameter of round products is at least 13 cm and reaches 20 cm or more. Also, low-frequency speakers are made and oval, but also large. The diameter of the midrange is 10 cm, and the tweeters are the smallest (6–8 cm).
The speaker system is conditionally divided into front and rear. This allows you to split the frequency of sound in order to achieve greater surround sound. So, the rear acoustics is assigned to the reproduction of low frequencies. Frontal acoustics are intended mainly for the transmission of medium and high frequencies. But such a separation is conditional, since the design features of a car can affect the acoustic circuit. For example, on compact city hatchbacks, rear speakers are not always used due to the lack of space for rear installation.
The most common audio circuitry used by carmakers includes subbasses or midbasses as surround back speakers and a two-component frontal system. Manufacturers of budget models do not even use such equipment, limiting themselves to installing coaxial speakers behind.
Differences between two- and three-component speakers
Coaxial Acoustics - A budget option used in low-cost audio systems. The peculiarity of these speakers is that the midbass and tweeters are assembled in a single design. To separate the frequencies, the device additionally includes frequency filters (crossovers).
In component for acoustics, the speakers responsible for reproducing a specific frequency range are separated and are separate elements. Widespread now is a two-component front speaker system, which includes midbass installed in the front doors below, and tweeters located on the front pillars or panels (dashboard, front console). With this scheme, the front speakers consist of 4 speakers - two midbasses and two tweeters.
The disadvantage of such acoustics is that there are no components that reproduce mid-frequency sound, and this range is shared between midbasses and tweeters. Due to the increased range of reproduced sound, the load increases on the speakers. As a result, the sound volume decreases, and with sudden transitions, sound distortion is possible.
Three-component acoustics is becoming increasingly popular among music enthusiasts. It is distinguished by the presence of mid-range speakers. This allows you to unload the elements of the circuit, providing each speaker with sound transmission in a much smaller range, which positively affects the sound volume, but there is no distortion.
But in order to get high-quality sound, simply supplementing the acoustics of the midrange with speakers is not enough; you still need to correctly position the acoustic elements. If there are no difficulties with midbasses and tweeters, since they remain in their places (the bottom of the door and the front pillar), then the creation of the so-called sound stage that forms the acoustics depends on the position of the midrange. The scene created at the level of the head of the driver and passengers is correctly considered.
Three places are used to install mid-range components:
- Top of the door
- Front Panel,
Each of these installation sites has its positive and negative sides.
The upper part of the door is a convenient place for the midrange, so the installation is simple. All work is reduced to cutting a hole for the speaker in the door body and lining, making or installing a podium, fixing the element itself and wiring.
The disadvantage of installing the midrange in the door is the underestimation of the soundstage level due to lateral sound propagation and the appearance of sound distortions as a result of sound reflection on opposite obstacles (doors, windows).
On premium cars, mid-range speakers are often located in the front panel, so car enthusiasts tuning the audio system also use this installation location.
Installing mid-range speakers in the front panel is not simple, especially if the automaker has not provided for seats. To install the midrange speakers, you have to dismantle the panel, cut holes, create a podium, lay and fix the wires.
The negative side of the placement of acoustics in the panel is the propagation of sound with preliminary reflection. Due to the position of the speakers, the sound rises, is reflected from the windshield and is directed towards the driver and passengers. At the same time, the sound stage level is optimal, but it itself moves away, which affects the clarity of the sound.
Mounting the midrange in the front struts is the best in terms of sound, since the sound stage is at the right level, and the sound is distributed directly.
The disadvantage of this installation site is the complexity of installation. Mid-frequency channels have a diameter of 10 cm, so if the work is done incorrectly, they overlap the angles of the windshield and side windows, negatively affecting the view. At the same time, it will not work to embed the speakers into the racks themselves, so you have to create a podium on the racks' covers with their subsequent sheathing with suitable material so that the new acoustics fit well into the interior.
We considered only the installation features of the speakers themselves, but they also need to be connected correctly. In a simple scheme, the front speakers are connected to the head unit. In this case, the radio must have the required number of output channels. When connecting, you can’t do without crossovers that divide the incoming signal from the head unit in frequencies and distribute it to the desired speakers. More complex circuits already use amplifiers (for midbasses).
When creating a high-quality speaker system, the design features of the speakers are taken into account - manufacturing materials, layout, shape. The sound connecting the elements of the audio system also has an effect on the sound.
In order not to understand the intricacies of creating a speaker system yourself and not to "pick it", please contact our service. Experienced craftsmen will help with the choice of acoustics and all related components, advise on the optimal location of the speakers, and perform all installation work in a high-quality manner.
We use the following algorithm for installing three-component acoustics:
- We coordinate with the customer, advise and help with the choice of types of acoustics for installation and the necessary components for installation (brand, characteristics, design features, etc.),
- We determine the installation location to select the best option that provides the best sound,
- We carry out the installation of speakers,
- We select a place to install crossovers,
- We lay the wires (at the request of the car owner, we create branches for connecting additional acoustic elements in the future),
- We connect the components into a single circuit,
- We check the performance, set up the audio system, adjust the position of the speakers (if necessary),
- We fix and hide the wires,
- We carry out decorative work (we cover panels and linings with new material, eliminate traces of installation).
Already during the transfer of the car, the owner can evaluate the sound quality of the new speaker system. Upon request, we are always ready to provide photo and video facts of the quality performance of work that will confirm full compliance with the technology for creating a three-channel audio system.
1. Crossover (crossover frequency filter)
This is a special device for dividing sound into several bands. In appearance, the crossover is a compact box that is mounted in a circuit between the speakers and the amplifier. Depending on the design, crossovers are produced passive and active.
When buying this device, consider what functions will be assigned to the device. If the radio is needed to create a general background and listen to news, then it is pointless to spend money on an amplifier for a car. In the case when the task is to get high-quality and powerful sound, you can not do without a special device.
Amplifier for acoustics
When choosing an amplifier, take into account such parameters - power (should be from 100 watts), interior volume and available acoustics. If you install an amplifier with a power of 100 watts with speakers 10-15 watts, then the latter will not "live" for a long time. The very first attempt to wind up the volume will damage the diffuser, which can no longer be restored. The power of the amplifier should be 10-15% less than the same parameter for the subwoofer and speakers.
Power is not the only parameter that you should pay attention to when choosing. Pay attention to the following points:
- operating frequency range - not less than 30-20000 Hz,
- the signal-to-noise ratio (background level) should be in the range from 96 to 98 dB. Otherwise, constant noise in between songs will make you go shopping for a new amplifier,
- number of channels. Modern devices for amplifying sound are produced by 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 channels. Please note that there is a separate output for the subwoofer.
The main task of the device is the production of low-frequency sound. The main parameter when choosing a device is power. The subwoofer itself is available in two types:
- passive. There is no built-in amplifier in such a device,
- active - with an amplifier in the device case.
For the full operation of the subwoofer, it is worthwhile to ensure the correct sound design, namely the perfect interaction of the front and rear waves. Решить задачу можно тремя способами:
- сделать бесконечный экран. Главное преимущество такого способа — простота монтажа и высокое качество баса. Минус — низкий уровень звукового давления и появление отличий в звуковых эффектах при разном заполнении багажного отсека,
- the bass reflex is a closed box with a special hole (tunnel) that acts as a connector for external and internal sound. The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the calculation, installation of the box and the large volume of the finished product (finding him a place in the trunk is a difficult task). The advantage of this design is minimal distortion of the sound and the greatest return of low frequencies,
- the closed box is characterized by simplicity of design, excellent bass quality and reliable protection of the speaker from accidental mechanical influences. On the other hand, efficiency is reduced, so the amplifier and speakers are better to choose with more power.
If you do not want to make holes in the body, then it is better to give preference to coaxial acoustics (we already spoke about it above). If for the sake of high-quality sound you are ready to make certain “sacrifices” and spend personal time on remaking the cabin, you will have to take care of choosing the right place for installation. In the same 3-way system, you will have to install six speakers and all of them need to be positioned correctly. Otherwise, even expensive car speakers will not provide the desired effect.
When buying a component system, consider installing the rear (rear) speakers, because they should provide a sense of volume. People often make a mistake and mount full-size speakers near the rear window. It is not right. It is enough to install two broadband speakers. In this case, note that the rear speakers should not reproduce low frequencies.
Video: Self-installation of "music" in the car
Car speakers will give a good sound only with proper installation. There are several rules here:
- Only cut low or mid-range speakers into the front doors. In this case, the power of the "low-frequency" should be higher than the power of the amplifier. This rule is mandatory. Otherwise, achieving depth of sound will not work.
- The simultaneous installation of low and medium frequency speakers in one door is unacceptable. When the woofer is operating, strong pressure is created in the door cavity, which acts on the mid-range speakers and distorts its sound. Some experts allow such a combination, provided that the mid-range speaker is enclosed in a special case. But in a small-volume cabin, defects are still noticeable.
- If the mid-range speakers are mounted in the doors, the subwoofers are installed under the front panel or under the seat. At the same time, low-frequency sounds in the range up to 600 Hz do not differ in directivity and merge with the overall sound effect.
- Mid-range speakers, unlike “low-frequency ones”, have directional sound, therefore there are two installation places for them - doors (we already mentioned this) and the front panel. The last option looks attractive, because there is a chance to choose the right direction of sound.
- When installing dimensional speakers in the doorway, you can not do without a special podium. Structurally, it is a prefix in the form of a ring, which is mounted directly in the housing. Thanks to the catwalks, you can achieve the right direction of acoustics and sound quality. The only downside is that you will have to make podiums yourself, and you will have to tinker with the casing.
- When installing the speakers in the door, the inside of the metal should be treated with a special vibration-isolating material. Otherwise, excess resonances and sounds will be very annoying.
- When installing the speakers in the dashboard, note that the panel is not always tight. The result of the "experiment" may be an audio short circuit. To eliminate such a problem, the woofer will have to be installed in a special case, treated from the inside with felt. If the dashboard in the car is small, then achieving good quality will be difficult.
Deep and clear sound in the cabin allows you to get real pleasure from listening. The main thing is to strictly follow the rules given in the article, not to save money on good car speakers and carefully carry out installation work.