Useful Tips

Tip 1: How to Make a Pen

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


Calligraphy is the finest and most widespread art in the world. It has been used by people for thousands of years to express thoughts, ideas, and emotions. Almost until the end of the 19th century this was done with a pen. Today we offer you to make a pen and ink with your own hands, and when you are done, you can practice writing with a pen for a bit. In addition, such a set will be a wonderful decor element for the library!

How did ink before

The first ink was for drawing. The oldest ink is soot. She was painted on the walls of caves, on the human body, on papyrus.
First, soot was used as a dry powder, then they began to dissolve in water. This solution was the prototype of today's ink.

Soot is poorly soluble in water; after drying, it does not adhere well to the carrier. Therefore, instead of water, oil began to be used. The ink quality has become better: the oil adhered well to the medium, the drawing and writing became clearer, they lasted longer.
Different peoples at different times used their components. Our ancestors dissolved powdered dried and crushed acorns in linseed oil, and galls on the leaves - galls, which they began to call ink nuts.

Color ink was later invented. To obtain red ink, iron sulfate was added to the oil. When the demand for ink increased and began to be produced in the factory, colored inks from synthetic materials appeared.

How do ink today

It would seem that ink is irrelevant today. But this is not so. Ink is still widely used in inkjet printers, in ball, gel, and capillary pens. Important documents and diplomas are signed in ink. Designers and artists work in ink. Ink stamps and stamps are placed on documents.

Technology is changing, requirements are changing. Like ancient ink, modern ink consists of a solvent: water, alcohol, glycerin, ethanol, coloring matter: fuchsin, indigo and indigo carmine, iron sulfate. Modifiers are added to modern inks that improve their properties - wettability, drying speed, viscosity. These are polyhydric alcohols, sugar, dextrins, latex. Preserving agents: oxalic acid, ethanol, sulfacilin are intended to preserve for a long time the ink itself, inscriptions and drawings made by them.

Depending on how and where ink is used, a lot of requirements are imposed on them. Basic requirements: excellent wettability with a carrier and non-wettability with a writing unit, preservation of color and saturation when storing documents in the light, absorbency, drying speed, resistance to water and solvents, the possibility of mixing to obtain shades, constantly decreasing cost.

The mystery of the ink of the Mongolian monks has not yet been solved. They knew how to make mother-of-pearl, ruby, sapphire ink.

In Rome, red ink first appeared at the beginning of a new era. They were so rare that only the emperor could write in red ink.

Inks from all types of pens, including ballpoint pens, flow from gravity. Therefore, during a space flight in a state of zero gravity they cannot be used. American scientists have long struggled to improve pens for astronauts. Our compatriots did simpler and supplied the astronauts ... with simple pencils.

The content of the article

How did ink before

The first ink was for drawing. The oldest ink is soot. She was painted on the walls of caves, on the human body, on papyrus.
First, soot was used as a dry powder, then they began to dissolve in water. This solution was the prototype of today's ink.

Soot is poorly soluble in water; after drying, it does not adhere well to the carrier. Therefore, instead of water, oil began to be used. The ink quality has become better: the oil adhered well to the medium, the drawing and writing became clearer, they lasted longer.
Different peoples at different times used their components. Our ancestors dissolved powdered dried and crushed acorns in linseed oil, and galls on the leaves - galls, which they began to call ink nuts.

Color ink was later invented. To obtain red ink, iron sulfate was added to the oil. When the demand for ink increased and began to be produced in the factory, colored inks from synthetic materials appeared.

How do ink today

It would seem that ink is irrelevant today. But this is not so. Ink is still widely used in inkjet printers, in ball, gel, and capillary pens. Important documents and diplomas are signed in ink. Designers and artists work in ink. Ink stamps and stamps are placed on documents.

Technology is changing, requirements are changing. Like ancient ink, modern ink consists of a solvent: water, alcohol, glycerin, ethanol, coloring matter: fuchsin, indigo and indigo carmine, iron sulfate. Modifiers are added to modern inks that improve their properties - wettability, drying speed, viscosity. These are polyhydric alcohols, sugar, dextrins, latex. Preserving agents: oxalic acid, ethanol, sulfacilin are intended to preserve for a long time the ink itself, inscriptions and drawings made by them.

Depending on how and where ink is used, a lot of requirements are imposed on them. Basic requirements: excellent wettability with a carrier and non-wettability with a writing unit, preservation of color and saturation when storing documents in the light, absorbency, drying speed, resistance to water and solvents, the possibility of mixing to obtain shades, constantly decreasing cost.

The mystery of the ink of the Mongolian monks has not yet been solved. They knew how to make mother-of-pearl, ruby, sapphire ink.

In Rome, red ink first appeared at the beginning of a new era. They were so rare that only the emperor could write in red ink.

Inks from all types of pens, including ballpoint pens, flow from gravity. Therefore, during a space flight in a state of zero gravity they cannot be used. American scientists have long struggled to improve pens for astronauts. Our compatriots did simpler and supplied the astronauts ... with simple pencils.

Tip 4: Which bird feathers used to write

The content of the article

Waterfowl

Among waterfowl, swans and goose feathers were most valued, although ducks were also used. The feathers of the left wing of the goose were considered suitable for the right-hander. Feather feathers were used, and from about one goose only about ten elements were suitable. Why was the goose feather considered the most valuable for writing? Unlike other birds, the goose feather is a thick hollow rod that had a porous base. This allowed the hand to hold it firmly. Thanks to the inclined cut of the pen tip made with a knife, the porous inside was exposed, which absorbed ink well. This made it possible to dip him less often in the inkwell. Also, the tip of the pen was moderately soft, due to which it retained its shape longer, which saved the owner from frequent sharpening.

In order for all these properties to be beneficial, it was necessary to properly prepare a pen for writing. For this, one young feather or five feathers of the left wing pulled out from a young and healthy goose. After that, it was necessary to cut off a part of the beard, so that it was convenient to take the rod. However, the use of writing instruments was still too early. An important stage is the digestion of the pen in alkali for about fifteen minutes. This made it possible to degrease it well. The process did not end there - it was necessary to harden the feather dried after the previous stage. For this, hot sand was used, the temperature of which did not exceed 65 degrees. It was possible to use the pen after sharpening the tip - for this they took a regular penknife.

Goose feathers had certain flaws. For example, the speed of writing with their use was small. They also made a loud noise and creak. The slightest inaccuracy caused ink splashing. It was impossible to press hard on the pen, otherwise its tip would quickly spin out and grind. With regular writing, the pen was enough for no more than a week, after which it was subjected to repair.

A quill pen is considered a symbol of poetry and literary creation. It was used for a very long time, until the end of the eighteenth century. Famous A.S. Pushkin painted great works and portraits with a quill pen. Studies have shown that there were more than fifty portrait sketches created in this way. As you can see, the great poet appreciated the quill pen as a good writing tool.

Other birds

Not only feathers of waterfowl were used. In principle, it was possible to write with any bird feather, which had a suitable size and normal tubular structure. Some calligraphers appreciated the black grouse feathers. Also could use the feathers of a hawk, ostrich, peacock, raven.

By the way, in Russia even in the nineteenth century it was bird feathers that were used, however, many writers did not trust anyone in the process of preparing feathers for writing. Good, high-quality feathers were even presented to each other as a sign of respect and special location.

You will need:

  • beaker,
  • water,
  • liquid soap,
  • PVA glue,
  • ink bottle
  • vinegar,
  • 10 nails (not rusty),
  • wooden spoon (or stick),
  • 4 bags of black tea
  • a small bowl
  • cling film.

  • pen,
  • scalpel (or other small and very sharp knife),
  • piece of thick wire
  • glass jar
  • some river sand.

* It is very important to choose a good feather. The best is a goose feather 25-30 cm long. (Can be replaced with a turkey feather from its tail).

Cooking Ink

1. Mix liquid soap with water in the following proportions: 1/4 cup liquid soap in 2 cups of water. In the resulting solution, put the nails and leave them there for half an hour.

2. Drain soapy water and wash the container. Put clean nails in a bowl again and pour them with vinegar. Wrap everything with cling film and leave it in this condition for 2 days.

3. Pour 1 cup of water into the pan, put tea bags there and put on fire. As soon as the water begins to boil, detect 10 minutes, then remove the tea from the stove. Allow the water to cool. Then mix tea and vinegar in equal proportions (do not forget to remove the nails). Now fill this jar prepared for 3/4 ink with this mixture. In the jar, add as much PVA glue as necessary to thicken the ink to a consistency suitable for writing, but not too much. Be sure to mix everything well.

So you made the ink. Do not pay attention to the color - on paper it will turn black when the ink dries.

Make a pen

1. Take a goose feather and a scalpel along the barrel, cut off the required number of “cloves” until you get the barrel of the feather of the required length for convenient fixing in your hand. By the way, in the traditional all the cloves were cut, and the pen barrel itself was cut to 15-20 cm. But agree that the feather with the plumage looks more attractive.

2. Now we will temper the pen barrel a little. To do this, heat the sand in the oven, pour it into a jar and stick a feather in it. Leave the pen there for half an hour.

3. So, now you need to form the tip of the pen. To get started, take a pen in your hand and decide how you prefer to hold and write. Remember where the bottom of the pen will be (in traditional writing, the pen rests on the middle finger, and so the bottom will be where the finger touches the pen). Place the pen with this side up and cut off the tip with a scalpel at an angle of about 45 degrees.

4. Now you need to remove the insides of the pen. To do this, take the wire and shove it inward, and then take it back with a sharp movement. The wire will hook the inner fluff and pull it up a bit, well, and you will pull everything out completely with your hands.

5. Now again take the scalpel, from the place of the previous slice, step back a little to the plumage side and make a cut at a sharper angle (as if planing). You should get something similar, as shown.

6. The last step will be the formation of the tip. To do this, carefully sharpen the point to the required size (the thinner it is, the thinner your pen will write).

Now you have a pen and ink! You will definitely have to practice to learn the pen writing skill. By the way, there are many articles and textbooks on the Internet on this subject.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send