Fresh greens on the table - it is taste, pleasure and benefit. Growing coriander from seeds will not take much time and effort. This spicy herb diversifies the daily diet, adds spicy notes and unique aroma to dishes. The crop is available for cultivation in open ground, a greenhouse and at home in a pot. She needs a minimum of attention and care. Green seasoning is used directly from the garden - fresh and harvested for future use - it is dried, crushed and stored. Seeds are used for further propagation and as a spice for food.
Coriander culture - description and properties
Coriander is an herb with an ancient history of cultivation. It was known in China and Africa, the Mediterranean and India, the Caucasus and Greece, it was used in Europe and Italy, Romania and Czechoslovakia. Many summer residents liked the oriental spice for its excellent taste, rapid growth, unpretentiousness and ease of cultivation. In a household plot, it is easiest to grow coriander from seeds.
Another name for coriander is cilantro, this delicious herb is endowed with a mass of healthy qualities. It has a pleasant smell and original taste, it has essential oils, fiber and vitamins. Coriander improves appetite and well-being, heals and prolongs life!
Coriander belongs to annual herbaceous plants of the umbellate family. Fragrant grass reaches a height of 30 to 50 cm and has two types of leaves - simple and pinnately dissected. Flowering begins 3 months after sowing, white or pinkish flowers in the middle of summer form seed umbrellas. Seed ripening ends by mid-September.
Sowing and growing spicy herbs
Coriander or cilantro is a grass of long daylight, so it is planted in the open part of the garden, where there is a lot of air and light. The abundance of shade slows down the growth of the plant and significantly weakens it. The coriander stem is straight and branched, the upper leaves are elongated and attached directly to it. The lower leaves have petioles with which they are fixed on the stem. Flowers gather in umbrellas, which end the stem of the plant.
How to plant coriander:
- Season. Coriander is sown in late spring - from late April to early May. Frosts are unfavorable for him; he does not tolerate heat well.
- The soil. Airy and fertile soil is an ideal base for culture. In order to improve the soil can be mixed with sand, add a little humus and wood ash.
- Site preparation. The best place to grow spicy grass is a sunny area or a semi-shaded area. Grass does not like excess shade.
- Landing. Sowing coriander is carried out in moist soil scattered or in rows. Between the seeds should remain from 10 to 15 cm, the row spacing should be about 25-30 cm, and the optimal sowing depth should be up to 2 cm.
The yield of coriander depends on the germination and quality of the seeds, fertility and moisture of the soil, weediness and the amount of daylight. Excessive shoots are better to clean, as the grass grows in rosettes, and neighboring plants can interfere with each other.
Planting and caring for coriander in open ground is to prevent its overgrowth. The first shoots are thinned out, leaving more powerful and hardy plants. Young shoots are used for food, reaching a height of 10-15 cm, old branches can be bitter. The coriander beds are watered as necessary, free from weeds and loosen the soil. In the fight against weeds, root mulching helps. Mineral dressing is introduced before planting, during the growth process, you can fertilize the coriander beds with potassium and superphosphate.
To be provided with coriander green throughout the summer, it is necessary to plant the crop in batches - every 2-3 weeks.
When to plant coriander in open ground:
- from the third decade of March to the second decade of May,
- throughout the summer season with a frequency of several weeks.
Cilantro is an unpretentious and cold-resistant plant, loves a sufficient amount of moisture and sun. The first sprouts appear after 28-40 days after planting. During the green mass gain, the grass requires systematic watering - twice a week. Coriander is a dry climate culture, so excess moisture affects it negatively.
Harvesting and harvesting
If you cut off more than a third of the plant at a time, then it will no longer grow. To ensure the growth and development of the plant in two to three cycles in a row, it is necessary to remove only the upper leaves, leaving the lower shoots. In the process of flowering, the grass ceases to give shoots suitable for food. In late August - early September, seeds are finally ripened, which are used in conservation and cooking. Dry coriander seeds can be used by gardeners who know how to sow coriander in open ground to grow greens next season. If a mature cilantro seed lands on the ground, it will germinate in the spring and provide a stable crop in the fall.
For growing coriander on greens and seeds, it is better to allocate two sites. Planting care is the same, but harvesting will be done at different times.
Knowing how to plant coriander seeds in open ground, properly care for it and correctly harvest, you can provide yourself with healthy and tasty herbs for the whole year. Cilantro is used as a seasoning in national cuisines and dishes of different peoples of the world. Agricultural technology of cultivating crops is simple and straightforward, accessible to every summer resident, without exception.
Cilantro is grown everywhere. This spicy herb is used in freshly picked and dried form as a complement to a huge assortment of dishes and sauces, so that the culinary product becomes spicy in taste. Due to the high content of essential oils, cilantro greens has a very strong aroma, characteristic of seasonings. Seeds are also widely used in the field of cooking.
Note. Coriander has good resistance to cold, which is characterized by winter in the middle latitudes.
The Japanese people, who are improving the process of planting cilantro for more than 5 thousand years, argue that the use of coriander has a positive effect on life expectancy. Distribution of Korean national dishes ensured the popularity of this herb in our country.
The chemical composition of cilantro includes the following mineral elements:
- essential oils,
- vitamin A,
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin K
- Vitamin B
- Vitamin P
- vitamin PP.
Fresh cilantro is used to increase appetite and accelerate the breakdown of heavy foods.
Ailments in which the leaf and seed parts of the plant are especially useful:
- decreased brain activity,
- deterioration of the heart,
- tendency to hysteria,
- depressed conditions.
There are a huge number of varietal varieties of coriander. Their difference lies in the specific purpose of growing the plant: for the production of a seed crop, only certain varieties are presented, and for the collection of greens - completely different from the first category, aimed at obtaining seeds. All of them, like other garden crops, are divided into varieties of early ripening, mid-ripening and late ripening.
The cultivation of such a herbaceous plant as coriander planting and open-air care for which should be carried out in the light soil material of a loamy or sandy loam type, suggests that before planting, the soil should be fertilized by applying 2 kilograms of humus to a plot of 1 m2. Humus can be replaced with 30 grams of mineral fertilizers. The soil should be fairly dry.
Coriander in a pot
The site for planting cilantro should receive a sufficient amount of sunlight, so the greenhouse is not recommended as a place of constant cultivation. It is possible to provide the plant with light penumbra conditions by planting it near a shrub or near a fence, which will allow periodically to open direct sunlight.
Important! Planting cilantro under the shade of a tree will contribute to the drying of sprouts and instant fouling of flower stalks. All this will badly affect the quality of greenery.
The ridge should be located on a flat area, since in lowland conditions the development of the plant and the ability to continue to emerge slows down, and the accumulation of moisture can lead to the death of planting.
The following crops are suitable as precursors that are best sown in order to ensure crop rotation when growing coriander:
Coriander propagation methods
This plant is propagated by seed. Sowing material can be collected manually or purchased at a specialized outlet. Also, this grass is characterized by self-sowing propagation, in which the seeds, which were kept during the winter under snow cover, are able to sprout on their own with the onset of spring - this eliminates the need to plant this plant every year.
Self-collection of seed
The first step is to determine the degree of seed maturity.
The correct agronomic analysis can be carried out based on the external state of the fruits:
- Ripened seeds have turned brown, they are easy to remove by hand. You can collect them when the process of shedding has begun,
- The ability to germinate seed material lasts no more than two years, if not sown immediately.
Seed preparation before sowing
So that the rate of seed germination and ripening become even faster, before you grow spicy cilantro, you should soak them in a solution with the addition of a growth stimulator before planting begins.
Helpful information. Aloe juice is considered a folk remedy to accelerate the growth of cilantro.
Sowing time of coriander seeds
You can sow cilantro both at the beginning and at the end of the horticultural season:
- Spring-summer sowing in open ground is carried out at the end of April. The appearance of peduncles on a plant sown during the period when the calendar summer is just beginning, or at the end of May, occurs after 20 days.
Helpful information. The slowdown in the development of cilantro planting occurs with a decrease in the duration of daylight hours.
The smallest ejection of the turnout occurs during the period from July to the beginning of autumn - at this time the greens develop with particular intensity. Harvesting will become possible only if the condition for timely removal of peduncles at an early stage of development of this part of the plant is met.
Coriander in the garden
- Autumn sowing is carried out by the end of October when further warming is impossible. In this case, in the next season there will be an early seed emergence at the onset of the first warming.
Tip. To start collecting the right seed in the month of June, it is preferable that the cilantro is planted in open ground with seeds in the spring as early as possible.
Algorithm for planting cilantro plants growing from seeds in open ground conditions:
- For a landing area of 1 m2, prepare about 3 grams of seed material,
- Plant the seeds at a 2-cm depth level,
- Thin out sprouts that have sprouted several times.
Note. The distance observed when planting plants in the garden on an open ridge is 13 centimeters. Aisles should be located approximately 20 cm apart.
The first shoots appear a month after starting to grow cilantro, however, certain weather conditions can contribute to an earlier germination of cilantro.
Regular grass harvesting is possible when sowing every two weeks during the warm season. You can cut the spicy grass 45 days after sowing. Within one site, you can grow several lots of crops.
Note! Re-sowing requires the introduction of 1 teaspoon of nitroammophoskos or superphosphate in 1 m2 of soil.
In addition, cilantro can be sown at home on the windowsill, where it is able to produce almost the same abundant yields as in the garden:
- Prepare a container for planting, the ideal option of which would be a seedling box or container,
- To prepare soil material that can be mixed independently from organic components or to purchase finished land on a trading platform that sells products for gardeners,
- Purchase or harvest seeds in advance,
- Sow the seed
- Constantly maintain a stable room temperature in the room,
- Provide the necessary soil moisture,
- Extend daylight hours by using a daylight lamp.
Tip. If possible, instead of a fluorescent lamp, it is recommended to install a phytolamp.
A bunch of cilantro (coriander)
Just sprouted plants need careful care. Weed plants, if they are not removed in a timely manner, can destroy immature plantings. When removing weak plants, the ridge must be thinned out.
Note. Weak young sprouts are suitable for human consumption.
When the coriander plant grows to a 5-centimeter mark, fertilizer based on nitrogen-containing substances must be applied to the soil. Mulching the soil will help maintain moisture at the required level, as well as slow down weed growth.
The leading goal of conducting events, how to plant cilantro correctly and care for it, and how to grow cilantro so that the crop is plentiful, is to stop the overgrowth of the grass planting:
- Seedlings need to be thinned regularly,
- Keep should be the strongest sprouts,
- Irrigate as needed
- Remove weeds in a timely manner,
- Loosen the soil periodically
- Mulching is carried out in a radical way,
- For fertilizer use potassium phosphate top dressing.
Note. Before you start planting coriander in a permanent place, it is necessary to introduce mineral fertilizer into the soil.
How to water coriander
Regular irrigation work will help to get a rich harvest of succulent greens. The lack of moisture will lead to a deterioration in the quality of the process of forming a sheet outlet and the formation of excess arrow part. 1 m2, planted with cilantro shoots, requires 4 liters of water for irrigation. Upon transition to the stage of enhanced germination, the liquid volume doubles.
Note. If cilantro planting and care in the open ground are carried out in order to obtain a crop of greenery, then regular removal of peduncles is necessary.
Disease and Pest Prevention
Cilantro is susceptible to the occurrence of foci of lesions with the following diseases:
It is possible to prevent the occurrence of these diseases with careful observance of agricultural technology, avoiding overmoistening of the soil. If affected areas occur, they must be removed, and then treated with fungicide.
Coriander essential oil
Note! When fungicidal treatment is not allowed to cut off the leaf part of the plant, especially for use in cooking.
The list of pests that pose a threat to coriander plantings:
- several varieties of bugs,
- seed eaters
- winter scoops
- umbrella moth
Note. Pest prevention is carried out using insecticidal drugs.
How to harvest and harvest
When cutting more than a third of the shrub part, its growth will be completely stopped and stopped. Ensuring the development of the plant for two consecutive cycles is possible only when cleaning the upper leaf part - shoots located below must be left. Having entered the flowering stage after planting cilantro, the herbaceous planting of coriander ceases to provide the ability to grow those shoots that can be used for gastronomic purposes. Seeds that have ripened in time for the beginning of autumn can be used in cooking and to create canned blanks. Dry fruits can be used as seed for growing coriander for the next horticultural season, with proper processing.
Note! Harvesting with the purpose of obtaining spicy greens and ripened seeds is carried out at different times.
Coriander is used in cooking many nationalities. Simple agricultural technology, how to grow cilantro, which allows you to plant this plant even on the windowsill in an ordinary apartment, knowledge of when to plant cilantro in the open ground, and unpretentiousness of care, including compatibility with some other garden crops, will allow you to grow this fragrant herb in any home garden a plot, such as a private residential building or summer house. Such a bed will yield a crop of useful medicinal herbs that can have a beneficial effect on the human body and help in the treatment of many ailments - this plant is part of a huge number of medicines. In addition, from coriander, you can prepare any number of home medicines according to numerous folk recipes.
How to grow coriander
Кориандр массово выращивают на юге европейской части России, на Северном Кавказе и в Украине. Sometimes cilantro is grown at the latitude of Moscow and even in Yakutia.
Appearance (photo) of coriander in the open ground
Planting coriander is quite simple, does not require complex manipulations and special knowledge, so even a novice grower will cope with it. Coriander is planted in the garden and at home.
Depending on the destination, a plant variety is selected. There are varieties that do not bloom for a long time and give a lot of greenery, they are called vegetable. If the goal is seeds, then you should choose varieties that quickly bloom and bear fruit. Their greenery is thinning, the stems are coarse. Such varieties are grown to produce essential oils.
Before planting coriander, determine the variety. Consider the most common of them:
- Amber - an essential oil-spicy variety with a characteristic strong aroma, late shooting and plenty of greens. It occupies about 90% of all sown area. Grows on 12-15 days. Greens ripen on day 30-35.
- Borodino - early ripening grade. Greens ripen by day 30, seeds - by 50 days.
- Taiga - late ripening grade. Greens are brightly colored and dense. Ripens by 35-45 days after germination.
- Vanguard - undersized variety with a strong aroma. Mid-ripening variety, ripens by 40 days.
- Debut - late ripening variety with a characteristic spicy aroma and delicate taste. Matures by day 35-45.
- Stimulus - mid-season vegetable variety. Rosette leaves reaches a weight of 45 g. Sown after vegetable crops in the soil with organic fertilizers. Greens ripen on 40-45 days.
All varieties of coriander prefer light fertile soil, which must be fertilized before planting. Consider the features of growing coriander in the open ground.
How to plant coriander in the garden (in the open ground)
Cilantro is a cold-resistant plant that tolerates small frosts. Coriander is grown from seeds in open ground from early spring, when the soil is very moist. Spice is used in mixed plantings as a strengthening culture. The pungent odor repels pests and disinfects the air.
Coriander with what to plant:
- spicy herbs: anise, caraway seeds,
- vegetables: cucumbers, zucchini, cauliflower,
- legumes: beans, peas,
- annual grass for hay and green fodder.
Consider step by step how to plant coriander in the ground:
- The beds are fertilized twice: in the fall and immediately before sowing.
- In early spring, the soil is dug up and moistened.
- Dry seeds are planted in open ground to a depth of 1.5 cm.
Coriander planting dates
To understand when to plant coriander, you need to know when you plan to harvest. Early ripe varieties of coriander ripen a month after planting, mid-ripening - for 35-40 days, late-ripening - for 45-50 days.
In a greenhouse, a plant is planted in late February to get the first crop in March. In open ground, seeds begin to be sown from April and sown every mid-week until mid-July to collect greens until the fall.
How to choose a site for planting spices
When we found out the coriander, we now turn to the selection of the site. Coriander planting in open ground occurs in well-lit areas. You can not plant cilantro in the shade of large trees, because it will develop poorly and grow. A slight shadow is acceptable.
An ideal place for coriander would be a flat or elevated area away from groundwater. Planting cilantro in the lowlands is not recommended, since stagnation of water can lead to the death of the plant.
How to plant coriander seeds
For planting, ripened plant seeds are selected. They have a brown color, bright aroma and are easily removed from umbrella inflorescences. Unripe seeds have a sharp unpleasant odor, which is compared with bugs. Seeds no older than two years of age have maximum germination.
How to plant coriander seeds:
- Dry seeds are sown in moist soil. For 1 square. meter takes 2.5 g. seed.
- The sowing depth is from 1.5 to 2.5 cm.
To have a general idea of how to sow coriander, consider the basic seed planting patterns:
- in rows - the seeds are planted, maintaining a distance between rows of at least 15 cm,
- randomly - randomly scatter seeds in the garden,
- in the wells - in each hole plant 2-3 seeds at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from each other.
You will learn more about how to plant cilantro at home in the following video:
How to harvest
As the greenery grows, it is cut with a sharp knife at a height of 2-3 cm from the soil. For eating, stems and leaves are suitable before flowering. After the plant has bloomed, the greens become rough and sparse. If during the growing season the coriander was seeded, then from one plot the crop is harvested up to three times.
To harvest cilantro, the greens are dried under a canopy, then chopped. The raw materials are stored in tightly closed glass containers so that the essential oil does not disappear. The expiration date of dry greens is 1 year.
You can prepare fresh cilantro. For this, greens are washed, allowed to dry, cut and laid out in containers. Tanks are cleaned in the freezer. Shelf life of cilantro is up to 2 years.
What to do if coriander begins to bloom
The beginning of flowering of coriander is a signal that the greens are becoming unfit for food. To extend the growth period of the leaves, you can cut off the flower. If the goal is to get seeds, then you need to let the plant bloom.
Seeds ripen by the end of August. Then they are easily removed from the plant and self-seeding distributed throughout the site. For their preparation, the cilantro is cut whole and dried under a canopy. From the dried umbrellas, the remaining seeds are shaken out.
Store them in cloth bags or glass jars. Shelf life of seeds - no more than 4 years.
Also, coriander can be left to bloom and in the future to collect coriander honey from it.