The toes of a person are small phalanges that can be broken as a result of injury. The main part of the fractures is stressful, the formation of microcracks. With such an injury, damage to a minor area occurs, which does not lead to rupture of the skin and bone displacement. However, there are times when a fracture of the finger occurs with serious complications. There are two types of fractures: open and fragmentation. In the first case, the bones stick out through the skin as a result of a significant displacement. With a fragmentation fracture, the bones on the toe are completely fragmented. To provide qualified assistance, it is necessary to determine what type of fracture, its severity, and only after that proceed with treatment.
Diagnosis of a fracture
Visit to the doctor. If for several days after the occurrence of an injury in the toe the pain does not go away, you should seek the advice of a traumatologist. The specialist will examine the damaged area of the leg, in particular the toe, and will prescribe an x-ray. After that, he will make an accurate diagnosis, as well as determine the classification of the fracture and its severity. The main signs of a fracture:
- Severe pain while moving.
- Visible swelling of the finger, numbness of the limb.
- Cyanotic color, which is provoked by internal bleeding.
- For an objective diagnosis, consult with other specialists, such as: chiropractor, orthopedist, physiotherapist.
Help of a qualified specialist. Some types of injuries (bruises, dislocations, minor cracks, fractures of a fragmentation type) are not medically dangerous. But the displacement during fracture of the phalanx of the finger and the fragmented bone definitely require surgical intervention. The big toe requires special attention. Before starting the treatment procedure, it is necessary to take into account the advice of doctors who specialize in improving the skeletal and muscular systems, restoration of joints. The risk of complications after fractures on the toes increases in the presence of various diseases that affect the bone system: diabetes, osteoporosis, osteomyelitis. The attending physician should be aware of these diseases of his patient. You can break any toe as a result of a strong bruise on a hard object or after falling objects with a large weight on your leg. In case of complex fractures, additional finger examinations are prescribed:
What should a patient know about his fracture? The patient should receive an accurate diagnosis and prescription from the doctor for the correct treatment of the injury. As a rule, stress fractures can be cured at home. In case of more serious injuries, as a result of which the bone is significantly fragmented, the finger is deformed, it is necessary to seek the help of a professional surgeon. Most often, the little finger and thumb are susceptible to fractures. An x-ray will help to distinguish a fracture from a bent toe as a result of joint displacement.
How to treat a stress fracture?
The first steps in the treatment. The most effective way to treat a stress fracture is considered to be a set of procedures called R.I.C.E. This is an abbreviation of English words, translated meaning rest, ice, compresses, climb. The first step towards recovery is rest. It is necessary to minimize the load on the leg with a damaged toe. The next step is the cold. Wrap ice in a dense tissue and attach to the affected area. This procedure will relieve inflammation, stop internal bleeding. During treatment and applying cold compresses, the leg should be raised up, this can be done with a few pillows, a chair. Ice is applied every hour for no more than 15 minutes. When the pain subsides a little, and swelling comes off, compresses can be done less often. If the fracture is not accompanied by additional complications, a broken finger will heal in a month. After which the person returns to his previous lifestyle and everyday activities.
Taking medication.In the event of a fracture, the attending physician ascribes painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs. Analgesics relieve pain syndrome well, and it is recommended to treat inflammation using tablets: naproxen, aspirin, ibuprofen. Do not forget that all recommended medicines have a side effect and negatively affect the liver, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Therefore, do not abuse and take the drugs for longer than half a month.
Bandage on a finger.Fix a sore finger with a tourniquet, attaching it to an adjacent finger. This procedure will help to avoid bending. Before applying dressings, treat fingers and spaces between them with sanitary napkins. Then rewind with a waterproof bandage. During the entire treatment period, change the dressing every 2 to 3 days. If it is difficult to do the dressings yourself, you should contact your healthcare provider for help. To avoid irritation, a gauze swab must be placed between the fingers. Sometimes for additional support they make their own tire at home. Make two wooden sticks of the same size, place a sore finger between them and bandage.
Comfortable shoes during the rehabilitation period. Shoes that will have to be worn after a fracture should be chosen as comfortable and spacious as possible. The finger should fit freely inside with the bandage applied. Fashionable shoes will have to be temporarily abandoned and switched to a special model with a stable sole. Women are not recommended to wear a heel, as the body weight shifts forward, additional pressure and stress are applied to the fingers. With severe puffiness and inflammation in the warm season, you can switch to open shoes, but do not forget that in this case the toes are practically not protected.
The specifics of the treatment of open fractures
Reduction surgery.There are times when bone fragments cannot coincide with each other. Then the surgeon performs an operation to restore the fragments to their original position. The name of this procedure is reduction. This operation is performed without invasive surgery, but it depends on the location and number of bone fragments. Local anesthesia for pain relief is injected into the broken finger. If the skin in this place is damaged, it must be sutured, treated with an antiseptic.
Use a tire.After carrying out the reduction on a sore finger, it is necessary to wear a tire during the rehabilitation period to protect it and provide additional support. Specialists can recommend using special, most comfortable shoes, move around with crutches for 14 days. Although walking a lot is undesirable, so as not to overload the leg. Rest as much as possible by lifting the limb up.
- Despite using the tire, you need to walk extremely carefully so as not to hit a sore toe.
- In the postoperative period, the menu includes foods enriched with calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and minerals.
Gypsum.When several fingers are broken, the leg is damaged in front, doctors can plaster the leg completely. In order for the treatment to have a positive result, the bones must be set by a specialist, as well as reliably protected from repeated trauma, overload.
- To make sure that the treatment is correct and that all the bones heal properly, the doctor may prescribe a second x-ray after a couple of weeks.
- Depending on where the fracture is located and what degree of its severity, the period of recovery and wearing of gypsum can last from one and a half to two months.
Complications after an injury
Physiotherapeutic procedures.After the disappearance of pain and inflammation, the damaged finger will recover, but changes in the movements and strength of the limb can occur. In this case, a consultation with a physiotherapist is necessary. He will select an individual set of procedures and exercises that will bring the injured leg to a normal state, help restore coordination of movements and balance when walking.
- During the treatment period, you can engage in swimming, do physical exercises with the body without any strain on the leg.
- Replace cold compresses on the affected area of the leg after ten days with heat. Apply a bag of warm salt or cereal to relieve pain
- It is not recommended to bandage the leg and fingers to people who suffer from diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy.
- Replace analgesics and anti-inflammatory medicine with acupuncture.
When revealing the clinical symptoms of a fracture of the phalanges of the toe with the typical mechanism of trauma, the patient is referred for radiography. Using this study, you can confirm or deny the violation of the integrity of the bone. Such a study is enough and there is no need for expensive types of examinations, such as MRI or CT.
What first aid is needed if the bone is broken? Anesthetics from the category of NSAIDs should be given to the victim (analgin, ibuprofen, nise, ketorol, diclofenac, movalis, naproxen, voltaren, ketans).
It is better to give an elevated position to the leg (the easiest way is to put your foot on the pillow or place a small roller under the heel).
As an immobilization in cases of suspected fracture of the thumb (I), improvised means can be used, for example, bandaged to the sole of the foot of the slippers or a wide ruler.
If a II-V finger fracture is suspected, a band-aid dressing is applied - a broken finger is fixed (fixed) to a healthy one with several rounds of the patch. Overlaying 3-4 rounds is enough for this.
To reduce swelling and pain, an ice pack can be applied to the foot. This procedure is performed several times for 15-20 minutes.
The victim must be taken to the trauma center as soon as possible to establish the correct diagnosis. This can be done with the help of personal transport or smp (ambulance).
First aid in emergency room
The victim is inspected, radiography. What to do if finger bones are still broken? In case of a fracture of the finger without displacement, gypsum is applied from the fingertips to the lower third of the lower leg over the entire width of the foot, with the formation of the arch of the foot. If necessary, the patient is given a certificate of incapacity for work and the date of the next appearance is prescribed.
In the first days after a patient’s injury, pain and swelling of the foot are disturbing. In order to reduce soreness, drugs from the NSAID group are prescribed (see all painkillers). A day it is recommended to drink painkillers no more than 3 times.
They should be taken after meals, as they irritate the mucous membrane of the digestive system and, with prolonged use, can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer. It is better to drink these drugs under the protection of omeprazole (Omez, Ortanol, Ultop, Losek Maps, Gastrozole), as well as Emanera, Nexium, etc.
If the pain can be tolerated without taking medication, it is better not to take anything. Typically, by the end of the first week, the intensity of the pain is significantly reduced.
To remove the swelling of the foot, it is recommended to lie down, keeping the foot slightly elevated. To this end, the foot is laid on a pillow. To eliminate pain and swelling, an ice bladder is applied for 15 minutes.
After the edema decreases (usually after 5-10 days), the plaster cast becomes freer, hangs on the leg. For a better fit, you need to bandage the bandage from above, without removing the old bandages.
How much does the fracture heal?
How long should gypsum be used for fractured toes? Immobilization, i.e. plaster casting time:
- with a fracture of the big (I) toe is 3 weeks
- with damage to the II-V fingers - 2 weeks
Why are gypsum periods so different? The phalanx of the thumb performs a supporting function when walking, a large load falls on it. Therefore, the timing of immobilization with damage to the thumb is longer than the rest. How much to walk in a cast after a fracture also depends on its nature. In the presence of bias, multiple injuries, immobilization periods increase by an average of 1 week.
When the cast, when the dressing
In case of fractures of the III - V fingers without displacement, gypsum can be replaced with a plaster bandage. Such immobilization is quite sufficient, since the middle (III), ring finger (IV) and little finger do not perform supporting functions when walking. The duration of wearing the adhesive bandage is 2 weeks. This is the time for which the fracture is fused.
At the doctor’s appointment, the patient comes in a cast or adhesive bandage. After removing the cast, the orthopedic trauma specialist directs the patient to the pictures to see if the fragments have grown together or not.
Why it grows together badly
With normal fusion at the fracture site, a developing callus is visible. The fracture line can still be traced, but it becomes barely noticeable in the picture. Bad intergrowth can be observed:
- with osteoporosis,
- insufficient amount of calcium in the body,
- general exhaustion,
- the presence of chronic diseases.
What drugs to take
For better healing, it is recommended to take vitamins with minerals containing Ca and vitamin D3:
- Calcium D3 Nycomed - 50 pcs. 280 rub
- Complivit with a high content of calcium - 100 pcs. 300 rub
- Media calcium and vitamin D - 60 tablets. 120 rub
- Colagen Ultra + D3 Calcium - 30 sachets 800 rub.
- Mountain calcium d3 - 80 pcs. 230 rub
- Calcemin - 30 pcs. 320 rub
For the same purpose, the patient is prescribed calcium electrophoresis.
The people have firmly strengthened the opinion that for better fusion of fragments, you need to drink a mummy. It's a delusion. Scientific studies conducted on this occasion have shown that the mummy promotes resorption of bone tissue, the development of osteoporosis. Therefore, its reception is not only not of practical use, but also harmful.
After removing the cast
After removing the gypsum, the ankle joint and fingers are developed, since their stiffness develops due to prolonged immobilization. Pain after a fracture may persist for some time, especially they increase when walking, changing the weather. The total period of disability in fractures of the toes of the feet is about 1 month.
If you do not need a sick leave, you will see a doctor immediately after an injury for casting. Then, if there are no special complaints, you can come to remove the cast and conduct a control x-ray.
On the same day, the patient is prescribed:
- LFK - physiotherapy exercises
- physiotherapy - magnetotherapy, electrophoresis with calcium, ultrasound.
Physical therapy includes the following exercises:
- straighten your legs, pull your foot away from you, then towards yourself,
- flexion / extension of the toes,
- fan-shaped dilution / pinch,
- circular movements in the ankle joints.
If there was an offset
Basically, fracture treatment is carried out conservatively. Surgical treatment is rarely used. This happens with open fractures with a significant displacement of fragments. In this case, the intervention is performed under local anesthesia (the area of injury is punctured with novocaine, lidocaine). The fragments are compared using a thick needle or knitting needle. Then put gypsum.
In this case, immobilization is carried out for 3-4 weeks. After removing the gypsum, an ankle joint is developed. After consolidation of the fragments, the spoke is removed. Further rehabilitation is carried out according to the same principles as with conservative therapy.
If fused with an offset
If the joint (consolidation) of the fracture occurred with a slight displacement - do not be discouraged. The fact is that bone marrow undergoes restructuring and change during the year. During this time, its smoothing and compaction occurs, so even if there is a slight displacement in the pictures now, this will not lead to a violation of the function.
First aid for a fracture of the finger
The first thing to do if the finger of the brush is damaged is to remove the rings from all fingers of the sore hand. The ring on the damaged finger contributes to the development of edema, crushing of blood vessels and necrosis of the finger. Next, we put the improvised tire on the damaged finger, or fix the damaged finger to the next finger with a band-aid or bandage. With severe pain, you can give an anesthetic drug located in a home medicine cabinet.
Finger fracture is diagnosed using radiography.
Finger fracture treatment
Fractures of the fingers without displacement лечат в гипсовой повязке от средней трети предплечья до кончика поврежденного пальца. Instead of gypsum, special tires are used that leave the remaining joints of the hand movable, immobilizing only the damaged finger.
For fractures with displacement make finger adjustments under local anesthesia and also apply a plaster or splint. A splint or plaster is worn up to 3 weeks. Non-corrected fractures can be treated by setting a retaining needle, which is removed after 3-4 weeks. Also, to stretch and hold the fragments, finger traction is applied to the nail plate.
The total duration of treatment for a fracture of the phalanx of the fingers is 3-5 weeks.
Fracture fixation splint
In the presence of closed tendon damage on the finger, a fracture fusion is achieved and after that they make plastic of the damaged tendon. The terms of treatment, in this case, are extended to 2-3 months.
Rehabilitation after a fracture of the finger
2-3 days after the injury, they begin to move in the unaffected fingers of the damaged hand and the fingers of a healthy hand. After removal of the gypsum, physiotherapeutic treatment is additionally prescribed: UHF, magnet, laser, electrophoresis.
The development of movements in damaged fingers must be approached with the utmost seriousness, in particular the 1st finger. Physical therapy should begin immediately after removal of the cast.
Exercises for the development of movements in the fingers of the hand (together with a healthy hand):
• Hands lie on the table, palms down. Take your fingers off the table together and alternately,
• Position too. Pinch your fingers apart
• Position too. We make circular movements with our fingers, sliding the pads on the table surface,
• Position too. Pinch your fingers together and simulate a “pinch of salt” type of motion,
• We make rings, leading the 1st finger to the rest,
• Bend 2-4 fingers, 1 fingers produce deflecting movements,
• Alternately make clicks with each finger,
• We bring the palms of both hands together, make spreading movements,
• Bending your fingers into a fist, alternately and together,
• Sort out a scarf or rosary in your fingers,
• Pour two different cereals (rice and buckwheat) onto the table, mix and sort,
• We collect the children's designer,
• We work at the keyboard or play a musical instrument,
• Exercises using a hand expander,
• With persistent restrictions on movements, we actively stretch our fingers with a healthy hand.
All exercises are done 10-15 times, 3-4 times a day. It is very good to repeat exercises in a basin with a warm solution of sea salt. After the exercises, we perform self-massage of the brush and rubbing anti-inflammatory ointments.
How to bandage a finger
Many people are interested in the question - how to bandage the finger on the arm and leg, because damage can occur suddenly. Not always the injury can be a small scratch, sometimes the bone is damaged, ligaments can suffer. It is important to know how to help in such situations. How to stop the blood with a strong cut on the finger is worth reading here.
How to bandage a toe
The feet are often damaged, especially in the summer, when light shoes are in fashion. The first step is to determine the type of injury:
To carry out the ligation you will need:
In the case of injuries on the legs, the big toe suffers more often, its fractures are more common than others. If you suspect you need to bandage the big toe to the adjacent one. And urgently contact the emergency room for an x-ray.
When dressings have their own rules. The scheme of how to properly bandage a finger on an arm or leg:
- First, the wound is thoroughly disinfected and cleaned. Use peroxide or any antiseptic. After treated with iodine or brilliant green. Do not wash with water or use iodine immediately.
- Take a sterile tissue larger than the wound. Apply to the affected area. Tie it is not worth it.
- The wrist of the damaged limb is wrapped with a bandage. Spend two circles. Lead to the site of damage through the rear of the brush.
- Hold a napkin with a healthy hand and wrap the bandage in a spiral. Move from bottom to top.
- Then they descend again through the rear of the brush. And wrap your wrist.
- Leave the tail of the bandage. Enough 15 cm. Cut it in half. The ends are tied.
Bandaging the thumb on the hand is different:
- Bandaging also starts from the wrist, but through the rear they lead to the top and make a spiral revolution. Then the movement of the bandage goes down. And through the palm they return the brushes to the rear.
- Continue applying turns until it is finally tied to the bottom. The bandage will look like a spikelet. This is a technique for applying a spiky bandage to a finger.
- Fastening is similar.
The most difficult thing is to put a bandage on the index finger on the hand, especially on the right, if it is not about left-handed people. Middle and ring fingers bandage together if a fracture is suspected.
Such dressings should be able to conduct everything. Often at home you have to provide first aid for damage. To learn about how the spike-like bandage is applied to the shoulder, it is worth reading here.
All dressings should fit snugly, but do not squeeze the damage site. Bandaging is carried out at least twice a day. If the bandage is contaminated earlier, then you can bandage more often.
It is necessary to do bandaging of a knocked-out finger on a hand. If a bone is knocked out, it must be bandaged tightly and sent to the doctor for medical assistance.
What to look for
There are times when going to the doctor is necessary even if it concerns the slightest cut.
- Purulent discharge from the wound. It is worth using Levomekol ointment.
- Redness and inflammation of the skin near the wound. Your skin may become hot.
- Unpleasant “twitching” at the site of injury.
- Increase in general body temperature.
Signs indicate that you need to see a doctor. You can not run abscesses, otherwise there will be serious complications.
Many injuries can be cured at home. First you need to determine the type of injury. Often enough to bandage a damaged wound. You need to know how to properly dress a damaged limb. And for this you need to know the basics of first aid. To do this, just read special literature or watch a video. You can read more about how to correctly wind an elastic bandage on your knee here.
In case of complications, immediately consult a doctor.