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How to identify symptoms

The most common dyslexic problems:

  • delay in the development of the ability to read, write, memorize spelling, difficulties with mathematics,
  • disorientation in space, disorganization,
  • difficulty in perceiving information,
  • difficulty in recognizing words, lack of understanding of what has just been read,
  • clumsiness or lack of coordination,
  • attention deficit disorder (ADD), sometimes accompanied by hyperactivity (ADHD).

  • He gives the impression of being very smart and quick-witted, expresses his thoughts well, but at the same time he is unable to read and write at the level of his class.
  • He is considered lazy, inattentive, stupid, retarded, naughty or not giving enough time to study.
  • He doesn’t lag behind in school so that assistance was provided to him at school.
  • It has a high coefficient of mental development, but does not always show good academic results, oral answers are much better than written ones.
  • He considers himself stupid, has low self-esteem, hides his weaknesses with the help of his original decisions, is easily upset and worried about reading aloud and writing.
  • He is talented in the fields of art, music, sports, mechanics, commerce, business, design, construction or engineering, a good storyteller and actor.
  • Often immersed in dreams, daydreaming, easily lost and forgets about time, does not control it.
  • It is difficult to keep attention, often distracted, is dreamy or hyperactive.
  • It is best absorbed through practical experience, experiments, observations and visual aids.
  • While reading, she complains of dizziness, nausea, or headache.
  • He is confused (in difficulty) at the sight of letters, numbers, words, sequences, as well as with oral explanations.
  • On writing and reading, repetitions, additions, rearrangements, omissions and replacements of letters, numbers and / or words are noticeable.
  • Feels or sees non-existent movements while reading, writing or transcribing.
  • It seems to have difficulty with vision, although testing shows that vision is normal.
  • It has extremely sharp vision and observation or lacks a sense of depth and lack of peripheral vision.
  • Reads and re-reads, almost without grasping the meaning.
  • He writes, "as he hears," the spelling is incorrect.
  • It is distinguished by good hearing, it is able to hear what has not been said or elusive to others, it is easily distracted by various sounds.
  • He has difficulty expressing his thoughts, the speech is “poor” monosyllabic, hesitates, does not end sentences, stutters when excited, pronounces long words incorrectly, swaps phrases, words and syllables.
  • Difficulties with writing and rewriting texts, unusually holds a pencil / pen, handwriting is changeable or illegible.
  • Clumsy, characterized by poor coordination of movements, ball games and team sports, difficulties with fine and / or general motor skills, are prone to seasickness and motion sickness when riding.
  • It can be equally good with both hands, often confusing right / left and top / bottom.
  • He has difficulty in determining and calculating time, is late, with difficulty assimilates the ordered information and tasks associated with the sequence.
  • When calculating, he uses a finger count and his other tricks, knows the answers, but cannot make calculations on paper.
  • Able to count, but has difficulty in counting items and operations with money.
  • Arithmetic is given, but algebra and higher mathematics are not obtained, it has difficulty understanding the conditions of problems.
  • Excellent long-term memory for impressions, places and faces.
  • Poorly remembers a sequence of events or things, facts and information that has not been obtained in practice.
  • He thinks mainly with the help of images and sensations, and not with sounds and words (there is practically no internal dialogue).
  • It is characterized by extreme disorganization or, conversely, pedantry.
  • In a class, it can be a buffoon, a bully or a silent person.
  • Through the stages of development (such as crawling, the appearance of speech, walking, tying shoelaces) passed very quickly or extremely slowly.
  • It is susceptible to ear inflammations (otitis media), is picky in food, and is susceptible to food additives and chemical products.
  • He sleeps very soundly or very sensitively, enuresis until a young age.
  • Has an unusually high or low pain threshold.
  • It has a keen sense of justice and emotional sensitivity, striving for perfection.
  • The number of errors and symptoms increases dramatically with difficulties, stress, as well as in a hurry and health problems.

Professional services described as Davis ™, Davis® system dyslexia correction, Davis® system spelling mastery, Davis® system disorientation guidance, Davis® system math mastering can only be provided by subjects working under the supervision licensed Dyslexia Correctional Specialist, or who have been trained and licensed as Dyslexia Correctional Methodists by the International Dyslexia Correction System Association me Davis

What is dyslexia?

Dyslexia, defined as a learning disorder or a disorder in reading, writing, and spelling, is the most common disorder of school-age children. Preschool age is, in a sense, a tipping point for identifying this disorder.

The obvious ease with which most children learn to read contrasts sharply with the dilemma of a surprisingly large subgroup of children trying to extract at least some meaning from the printed words.

As defined by the International Dyslexia Association (IDA, 2002), such a difficulty arises "in spite of adequate intellectual abilities and the possibility of effective learning."

Dyslexia characterized by difficulties in recognizing words, spelling, decoding, slow reading and writing, inversion of letters and numbers, as well as memory problems. Inability to develop free reading (the ability to read text not only accurately, but also with speed and adequate expressiveness) is also a sign of a disorder that persists in adolescence and adulthood. This is a hereditary disease with genetic changes that still represents changes in the neurological pattern.

Preschool children

A preschool child may have the following symptoms:

  • Problems with rhyme memorization, lack of interest in rhymes, poor pronunciation of words, difficulty in mastering and remembering letters, poor knowledge of letters of a proper name, inability to remember it.
  • The child begins to speak later than most other children.
  • A child has more difficulty pronouncing words than other children.
  • Slow vocabulary replenishment with new words and inability to remember the right words.
  • Difficulties with learning the alphabet, numbers, days of the week, colors, shapes, writing letters and writing your own name.
  • The child shows difficulty in trying to rhyme words, recognize letters and phonemes.
  • Slow development of fine motor skills. For example, your child may need more time than other children of the same age to learn how to hold the pencil in such a position to write, use buttons and zippers, or brush your teeth.
  • Difficulties with dividing sounds into words and pronouncing them together.
  • It is difficult for a child to understand that words can be divided into parts, the difficulty of associating letters with sounds, the inability to read simple words, and complain about how difficult it is to read.
  • It is difficult to read simple words that are not surrounded by other words.
  • Children may not be in a hurry to learn the relationship between letters and sounds.

In primary school

  • Children do not have fluent speech (frequent pauses or hesitations).
  • Inability to find the right words, they are confused by words similar in sound.
  • Problems with remembering dates, names, phone numbers, lists.
  • The difficulty of completing control tasks within a set time.
  • Problems with understanding the formulations of mathematical problems.
  • Slow reading, often need help, the child is afraid to read aloud.
  • Extreme difficulty in learning a foreign language.

In high school and college

Pupils in high school and students can:

  • Read very slowly with lots of inaccuracies.
  • Continue to spell incorrectly or often spell the same word in different ways in the same passage.
  • Avoid tests that require reading and writing, and defer reading and writing tasks.
  • Difficulties with the preparation of resumes and schemes for classes.
  • Work intensively on reading and writing assignments.
  • Having a small amount of memory skills and completing assigned tasks is slower than expected.
  • Have a small vocabulary, can not accumulate the read information in memory.

Evaluation is carried out according to the rules defined by the term dyslexia: reading difficulties in a child or adult, who in all other aspects has good intelligence, strong motivation, and sufficient education.

Diagnosis of dyslexia is based on an already balanced synthesis of information - the school history of the child (or adult), observation of his speech and reading, as well as the results of tests for reading and language.

When to see a doctor?

Although most children are willing to learn to read in kindergarten or first grade, children with dyslexia often cannot understand the basic principles necessary for this activity at this stage. Talk with your doctor if your child’s reading level is lower than expected for his age, or if you notice other signs of dyslexia.

If this disorder is not diagnosed and treated, reading difficulties encountered in childhood will continue into adulthood.

Risk factors

Risk factors for developing dyslexia are as follows:

  • Family history of dyslexia.
  • Preterm birth or low birth weight.
  • Exposure to nicotine, drugs, alcohol, or infection during pregnancy, which can alter fetal brain development.
  • Individual differences in the parts of the brain that allow reading.


Dyslexia can cause a number of complications, including:

  • Learning problems. Since reading is a core skill in many school materials, a child with dyslexia in most classes is disadvantaged and it may be difficult for him to keep up with his peers.
  • Social problems. Without treatment, dyslexia can cause a decrease in self-esteem, problems with behavior, anxiety, aggression and detachment from friends, parents and teachers.
  • Problems in adulthood. A child may be deprived of the opportunity to reach their potential when they grow up, if you do not learn to read and write. This can have long-term educational, social, and economic consequences.

Children with dyslexia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and vice versa. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can cause difficulty with attention, as well as hyperactivity and compulsive behavior, which can make it difficult to treat dyslexia.

There is no known way to correct preexisting brain abnormalities that cause dyslexia, a problem that persists for life. However, early detection and assessment to identify specific needs and the right treatment can improve success.

Educational Therapies

Dyslexia is treated with the help of special educational approaches and methods, it is recommended to start the intervention as soon as possible. Psychological tests will help the child’s teachers develop an appropriate curriculum.

Teachers can use methods including hearing, vision, and touch to improve reading skills. Various psychological tricks for using several senses in learning (for example, listening to a recorded lesson and drawing the shape of written letters and spoken words with your finger) can help the child process and remember information.

Treatment aims to help your child do the following:

  • learn to recognize and use the shortest sounds that make up words,
  • understand that letters and letter sequences represent sounds and words,
  • understand what he reads
  • read aloud to gain accuracy, speed and expressiveness when reading,
  • create a vocabulary with words that are recognizable and understood.

If possible, classes with a reading specialist can be helpful for many children with dyslexia. If your child has a serious reading problem, you may need more frequent training, and progress may be slower.

Early treatment

Children with dyslexia who receive help already in kindergarten or in the first grade often improve their reading skills by succeeding in primary and secondary schools.

Children who do not receive help before high school may have difficulty learning the reading skills necessary for a good reading of the text. They may lag behind in studies and never be in time. A child with severe dyslexia may never be able to read easily, but he can acquire reading skills and strategize to improve school performance and quality of life.

What can parents do

You have a fundamental role to help your child succeed. Take the following measures:

  • Solve the problem at an early age. If you suspect your child is dyslexic, talk with your child’s doctor. Early intervention can improve success.
  • Read aloud to your child. It’s better if you start reading when your child is 6 months old or even earlier. Try listening to recorded books with your child. When the child is old enough, ask him to listen to stories, and then tell them to you.
  • Work with your child’s school. Talk with your child's teacher about how the school will help you succeed. You are the best protector of your child.
  • Encourage reading. To improve to master reading skills, the child must read. Encourage your child to read more.
  • Set an example for reading. Spend an hour every day reading, so that the child also begins to read, this is an example to the child. Show your child that reading can be enjoyed.

What adults with dyslexia can do

Succeeding in adults with dyslexia can be difficult. To help yourself achieve your goals, regardless of your age, try to get an assessment and get help reading and writing.

Problems with reading and writing do not necessarily mean that a person with dyslexia cannot succeed in life. With the right resources, capable dyslexic students can be very successful. Many people with dyslexia become creative and vibrant personalities, and can be talented in mathematics, science, or art. Some people even have a successful writing career.

Mugan events

After the October Revolution and the subsequent collapse of the Caucasian Front in Mugan, a fertile region in the south of the present Republic of Azerbaijan, anarchy was established. Ethnic tensions between the local population and the Russians who settled in this region during the period of the Russian Empire resulted in hostilities. Many border guard officers who refused to leave the region also came to the aid of the Russian settlers. The period of ethnic clashes ended only after the establishment of Soviet power in April 1918, attempts were made to reconciliation. Soviet power, however, did not last long, and after the fall of the Baku commune on Mugan for several months a government was established that focused on the white forces of Russia. Nevertheless, the authority of the government was weak and in April 1919, Soviet power was again established in the region in the person of the Mugan Soviet Republic (MCP).

The officers’s rejection of the new government and the arrest of one of the leaders of the previous governments, Colonel Ilyashevich, led to the war between the white and red in Mugan. At the same time, a large-scale uprising of Azerbaijanis and Talysh against the MCP began, the regular units of Azerbaijan came to the rescue. The Bolsheviks crowded from all sides in July 1919 were evacuated. After their departure to Mugani, a white government was formed for a short time, but then the Azerbaijani forces managed to establish control over the region.

Szeged Peace Treaty

Szeged Peace Treaty (Serb. Szegedinski mir, tour. Edirne-Segedin Antlaşması, Hungarian. Váradi béke) - a treaty signed in the summer of 1444 by the King of Hungary and Poland Vladislav III Varnenchik, on the one hand, and the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Murad II, on the other. The agreement was the result of a difficult situation in which Murad found himself forced to fight the knights of the Crusade to Varna in Rumelia and the ruler of the Baileyk Karamanid Ibrahim Bey II in Anatolia. Впоследствии, вплоть до конца XVIII века, османские султаны считали достаточным лишь своей подписи для того, чтобы договор с другим государством вступил в силу.

Во время переговоров о мире с султаном король Владислав обещал папе Евгению IV продолжить крестовый поход. On August 1, Vladislav took an oath on the Gospel that he would observe the terms of the peace treaty for 10 years, and on August 4 denounced the agreement and promised to speak out against the Ottomans. This led him to a crushing defeat and his own death. Due to the fact that neither the Ottoman nor Latin originals of the treaty were preserved, attempts were made to deny its signing by Vladislav in order to remove the accusation of oath-crime from the king.