- How to prevent an ectopic pregnancy
- How to get pregnant after an ectopic pregnancy
- How to get pregnant with spikes in pipes
- - consultation of an obstetrician-gynecologist,
- - prescribed drugs.
- How to avoid an ectopic pregnancy?
- Who is facing an ectopic pregnancy?
- How to avoid an ectopic pregnancy?
Normally, after fertilization, the egg begins to move through the fallopian tube into the uterine cavity. Special villi - trumpet fimbriae help her in this. Having reached the uterus, the egg is implanted in the mucous membrane and begins to divide with the formation of the embryo.
However, in some cases, the course of pregnancy is disturbed, and implantation takes place in a place completely unusual for this process. Such localization is called an ectopic and can be of the following types:
In almost all situations, an ectopic pregnancy is interrupted in the early stages. In the entire history of obstetrics and gynecology, doctors had to observe only a few cases of successful bearing and giving birth to a child with such a pathology. This is possible only with abdominal localization of the fetus and refers to casuistry.
Tubal pregnancy accounts for the largest percentage of all ectopic implants. The causes of this violation are diverse.
As a rule, tubal pregnancy does not occur without prerequisites. For its development, the following conditions are necessary:
- The impaired work of fimbriae, due to which the normal movement of the fertilized egg becomes impossible.
- Narrowed tube lumen due to adhesion.
- Anomalies in the development of internal genital organs.
- Hormonal disorders.
In any of these situations, the egg cannot reach the uterine cavity and is implanted in the tube, where it begins to divide. As the ectopic pregnancy progresses, the fallopian tube expands and becomes thinner, which inevitably leads to its rupture.
Structural or hormonal pathologies arise for various reasons. Most often, they are a consequence of the following diseases or conditions:
- Inflammatory processes in the internal genital organs.
- Adhesive process in the abdominal cavity.
- Migrated abortion.
- A history of ectopic pregnancy.
- Congenital or acquired structural abnormalities, malformations.
- Endometriosis and dishormonal diseases.
Inflammatory processes in the internal genital organs are not uncommon. They can be the result of hypothermia, especially in adolescence and youth, when, for the sake of fashion, a girl neglects warm clothes.
But more often, inflammation in this area occurs due to genital infections. They affect the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes with the development of chronic adnexitis, endometritis, or salpingo-oophoritis.
The causative agents are most often chlamydia, ureaplasma, trichomonads, gonococci, herpes virus. Diseases caused by them, it is customary to combine into one large group and denote the abbreviation STD - "sexually transmitted diseases."
As a rule, these pathologies are rather difficult to diagnose, since most of them proceed with erased clinical manifestations. Characteristic vivid symptoms are observed only in gonorrhea and genital herpes. They force a woman to consult a gynecologist or venereologist and start treatment on time. However, even after therapy, these infections can manifest themselves with complications such as adhesions in the fallopian tubes.
Chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and trichomoniasis most often occur with unexpressed symptoms. Changes in the discharge of a woman are often attributed to the thrush or do not pay attention to them at all. But meanwhile, these untreated diseases in most cases become the culprits of infertility or ectopic pregnancy due to partial obstruction of the tubes.
Although preventative measures for inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs are simple, many girls and women neglect them. Often this happens due to lack of awareness of sexual hygiene issues or neglect of one’s health.
However, in this situation, you need to clearly understand that even a single inflammatory process in the genital area can lead to an ectopic pregnancy in the future.
It is important to prevent hypothermia of the body as a whole and the pelvic area in particular, to observe sexual hygiene, to consult a gynecologist in a timely manner when the slightest complaints appear and undergo treatment. In addition, regular annual visits to the doctor, even in the absence of any symptoms, are important. It will reveal the initial, asymptomatic stage of the disease.
For STDs, preventive measures also exist.
Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases is simultaneously the prevention of infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Most often, these infections cause an inflammatory process in the fallopian tubes, due to which the work of fimbriae is disrupted. They may not move at all or in the opposite direction, which leads to implantation of a fertilized egg in this area. STDs also cause the development of adhesions in the fallopian tubes, which is a mechanical obstacle to the progression of the germ cell.
Avoiding sexually transmitted infections is easy. To do this, it is enough to follow certain rules:
- If possible, rarely change sexual partners.
- Get tested for STDs regularly.
- Use contraceptives.
In new relationships, it is important to offer testing for STDs and the sexual partner, regardless of the degree of trust, love and intimacy. A man may not even suspect that he has such diseases, and they are possible even after a single sexual intercourse.
In addition, contraceptives must be used before receiving negative test results. It is important to choose those that protect not only from unwanted pregnancy, but also from sexual diseases. These include condoms and special spermicidal ointments with antimicrobial effects.
However, barrier contraceptives - condoms - are by far the most effective method of preventing sexually transmitted diseases. If there is spontaneous sex with an unfamiliar partner, it is better to use two methods at the same time.
With unprotected intercourse, postexposure prophylaxis of STDs should be performed - for example, with chlorhexidine or a similar agent. However, its effectiveness will be significantly lower.
The absence of inflammatory diseases in the genital area significantly reduces the risk of ectopic pregnancy. However, ectopic egg implantation can also occur during adhesions in the abdominal cavity.
Adhesive process in the abdominal cavity
Adhesion can also develop in the abdominal cavity. As a rule, it is the result of operations for appendicitis, peritonitis, ovarian apoplexy. Adhesions can also form after removal of the ovarian cyst.
They arise due to widespread or localized inflammation in the abdominal cavity, as well as due to trauma to its organs during surgical intervention. Often, doctors try to get rid of adhesions by dissecting them, but often this only leads to an increase in the adhesion process.
The wider the disaster in the abdominal cavity, the greater the likelihood of this complication and the more pronounced it will be. That is why early diagnosis of surgical pathology and a minimal amount of surgical intervention significantly reduce the risk of adhesions.
With adhesions, ovarian or abdominal ectopic pregnancy may occur in this area. How to prevent this complication?
It is completely impossible to prevent the occurrence of adhesions in the abdominal cavity after surgery. No doctor can give a 100% guarantee even with a perfectly performed operation. The severity of this complication depends on the amount of intervention, the neglect of the disease and the individual characteristics of the body.
As a rule, surgeons necessarily treat the abdominal cavity with special solutions that prevent the formation of adhesions. Also an excellent preventive measure is early physical activity after surgery. Naturally, it is carried out with the permission of the attending physician and under his control.
Postponed abortions, especially at a young age, in a nulliparous woman are a potential risk of both an ectopic pregnancy and infertility. This is due to mechanical damage to the inner layer of the uterus, which often entails a sluggish inflammatory process with the formation of adhesions or disruption of the villi of the fallopian tubes.
Prevention of this complication is obvious. Abortion should be avoided by all available means. First of all, these include:
- Pregnancy planning with a partner.
- The use of condoms.
- Avoidance of accidental and unprotected sex.
Structural abnormalities of the internal genital organs can be congenital or acquired - for example, due to injuries, operations, adhesions. This is especially true for the fallopian tubes. The result is always obstructed egg movement and a high risk of premature implantation.
Some structural abnormalities can be removed surgically. However, it is important to know that in the fallopian tubes it is not enough to simply restore the lumen. This will not help the fertilized egg progress. It can reach the uterus only during normal functioning of fimbriae, which is not corrected by surgery.
Therefore, often with structural anomalies or gross malformations, the fallopian tubes are simply removed, and the woman is offered an IVF option.
Endometriosis and dishormonal diseases
Endometriosis is a dishormonal disease of the female reproductive system. With him, sections of the uterine endometrium are located in places atypical for him - for example, in the tubes, ovaries, abdominal cavity. It is not surprising that a fertilized egg is sometimes implanted in this area, because it is no different from the inner layer of the uterus.
Treatment of endometriosis is a complex and time-consuming process. In this case, mainly hormone therapy is used, but sometimes doctors have to resort to surgical intervention. Successful treatment is the main measure for the prevention of ectopic pregnancy with this pathology.
Other dishormonal diseases of the female genital area can also lead to untimely ectopic egg implantation and require treatment by a gynecologist-endocrinologist.