Stained-glass window is a welcome decoration of any interior. But professionally made stained glass windows are expensive. Meanwhile, there are different types of stained glass techniques, and some allow you to do stained glass with your own hands. The simplest ones make it possible to make, for example, a stained-glass window, very similar to the real one, if you do not look closely. And for a more complex, but affordable for the airman, it turns out a work that the specialist, without disassembly, can not distinguish from the "crafty" one.
The main secret of technology
The manufacturing technology of any stained glass window does not require deep knowledge. But you definitely need an accurate eye, a faithful and firm hand, and utmost accuracy. The smallest errors, accumulating as they are manufactured, as a result give the product a not very attractive, or even just a messy look. So the main conditions for success are dexterity, ingenuity, training. If after three trial compositions the size of a large book you get a good real one - you are a nugget.
Stained glass window in the Cathedral of St. Vincent's Blois
About sketches and scissors
The basis of any stained-glass window is an element-by-element sketch. Sketches of stained-glass windows are always carried out in duplicate. If they are made on a computer and printed, there is no problem: the printouts are absolutely identical.
However, for a large panel, the sketch has to be drawn by hand, and then copied on a blueprint. Despite such a serious name, the simplest blueprint machine is just a sheet of glass (which will then fit on the base), laid on two chairs, and a light bulb underneath.
To make a stained-glass window without errors, you need to remember firmly: the assembly is carried out according to the PRIMARY, most accurate sketch, and a copy from it will go to the templates. Otherwise, inconsistencies are inevitable, and fitting fragments along the way complicates and spoils the work.
Scissors are needed not simple, but special template, with three blades. The third cuts a strip 1.76 mm wide. Before cutting, the secondary sketch is pasted onto a sheet of thin but dense cardboard (an ideal case is an electric cardboard of 0.5 mm) and a paper-cardboard puff is already cut. Otherwise, in the manufacture of fragments it will be very difficult to draw a soft paper outline.
When sticking, be careful - paper soaked from any glue stretches when smoothing, and you need to glue it all over. Each finished template is verified according to the initial sketch. By the way, the pieces of both sketches need to be numbered in the same way before cutting.
Types of Stained Glass
A classic or glass stained-glass window is a window made of many colored glasses, transparent or dairy, dairy, in this case, it means - opaque colored in bulk. Frosted glass is “shagged” on one side, and it is transparent at the break.
Fragments of a stained glass window are sometimes called stained glass smalt so as not to be confused with smalt from which a glass mosaic is recruited. Stained glass window and descended from mosaics. Sometimes they even say just smalt, because stained-glass windows are much more than glass mosaics. Further in the text smalt - everywhere stained glass smalt.
Each smalt is framed by a U-shaped profile of lead, tin, copper or brass. Then the smalt is laid directly on the primary sketch, and the seams are soldered. It turns out a window bound with H-shaped profiles. A frame from a brass corner is immediately imposed on it, for strength, and soldered already along the contour. The resulting picture is inserted into the window frame or in the backlit opening. In this case, the smalt is taken matte or dairy.
Stained-glass windows made in the classical technique
In the figure in the previous section - one of the greatest world stained glass masterpieces, a stained glass window in the south window of the Cathedral of St. Vincent in Blois. In the picture above - modern stained-glass windows of the classical type. Both there and there, a combined technique using fusing is used, see below. The classic stained-glass window is very difficult to work, laborious and not very durable. They didn’t put them in the hinged windows - they could crumble from the cotton of the open sash.
Film and ceiling
The film stained-glass window (the first on the left in the next figure below) refers to false stained-glass windows: a pattern with imitation of borders between smaltes is applied in one way or another to a glass base, transparent, matte or milky. In this case, it’s just a self-adhesive film, we’ll talk about simulating contour borders below, it’s not at all difficult.
To make a stained-glass window from a film is no more difficult than simply pasting something with self-adhesive. The main thing is to degrease the glass well with a solution of dishwashing detergent in water 1: 5-1: 20 and then rinse with distilled water. Bubbles on the film are pierced with a needle and in a day or two they fall without a trace.
Modern films are quite durable, but you can immediately see that this is just an imitation. And on the reverse side, he generally has no appearance. Therefore, film stained glass is most often installed on the ceiling. There they are just in their place - cheap and cheerful.
Earlier, ceiling stained-glass windows were not widespread: the base is heavy, fragile, and is extremely traumatic when collapsed. According to the properties of the material, stained glass on glass should not be hanging at all. Now the best base for ceiling stained glass is acrylic.
Try bending or breaking a computer disk. This is the strength of acrylic plastic with a thickness of only about 1 mm. A man throws a sheet of acrylic 3x3 m, 2-3 mm thick, with his hand, and under his own weight he does not sag for many years. And suddenly it will fall out - it is quietly planning, swaying. And the film on acrylic holds very firmly. True, acrylic is much more expensive than glass.
The second pos. on the left - a stained-glass window with paints, or filler. From the face it is already very similar to the real one, but from the inside, the fake is still noticeable, even if it is framed along with the face in mirror reflection.
We will further examine the technique of floodglass stained-glass window in more detail: from such skilled hands such compositions come out very effective from the face, but getting them is not so simple. For completeness of the effect, double passage of light rays through the glass base is necessary, therefore, a smooth or textured reflective surface under it. Therefore, the most common use of filling equipment is stained glass on a mirror.
The fact is that paint, when properly filled, forms a meniscus, see below. The rays, direct and reflected from the mirror film, pass through its sections with different curvatures, and the stained-glass window plays with might and main colors. The diffraction at the borders of the border also affects, so it is better to make it dark, but shiny, also see below. Especially effective is the “filler” on acrylic mirrors with a reflecting tantalum-niobium substrate.
A stained-glass window-tiffany (next from left to right pos.) Is already a real, full-fledged stained-glass window made of glass smalt. The difference from the classics is only that the binding is not made of cast or forged grooves, but is formed directly at the end of smalt from a metal soldered foil (folia), which they still could not do in the Middle Ages.
When using brass foil, hard fusible solders (which in the old days, too) and semi-active tiffany fluxes are quite durable. It will go like a stained-glass window on a window, incl. swing or French, and at the door. Tiffany technique allows you to "stained" volumetric rectangular and curved structures. For this, the side faces of smalt are beveled at 45 degrees or at the angle required by curvature. Industrial equipment for this is not required. We will also analyze the tiffany technique below.
Faceted stained glass window, penultimate position. - An indispensable sign of a prestigious interior. Facet - a wide, at a small angle, optically accurate polished chamfer on a thick, from 6 mm, glass plate. The facet angle must be precisely matched with the optical properties of the glass to make the so-called. the diamond face that gives the greatest refraction.
Faceted stained glass smaltes are made transparent, colorless or colored, from special grades of glass - potash (light, with a lower refractive index) and lead (heavy, with high refraction). The facet stained-glass windows from skillfully selected combinations of both are especially spectacular (crown flats).
Facet smalt is collected in special, individually manufactured profiles from a durable aluminum alloy, due to its large weight. In general, faceted stained-glass window requires high craftsmanship and industrial conditions for manufacturing. Most often, smalt is ordered in batches at optical-mechanical enterprises, and is collected already in the conditions of small / medium production.
The fusing stained-glass window, or stained-glass fusion (from the English fuse - to melt, melt, the last pos.) Is made of pre-softened (300-1200 degrees, depending on the type of glass) smalt, laid out on a heat-resistant plane by stencil. The entire set is rolled, so that smooth transitions of colors are obtained, which is unattainable in other stained glass techniques.
Fusion - aerobatics stained glass art. Even when manufactured by robots in an industrial environment, each product is unique due to rolling. Large stained glass fusion costs a lot of money, however, with the development of robotics, prices are steadily falling, here, as they say, in two circles, China is ahead of the whole world. The fusion technique itself has been known since ancient times, it is from it that smalt with faces was made and is made, etc. for classic stained glass.
Making a simple stained glass window
About the film stained glass window has already been said, and there is nothing complicated in it. But, before proceeding to the colorful, we will talk about imitation of lead binding, it is common in both cases. A decent-looking imitation of a stained-glass window is largely determined by the similarity of the false border to a natural metal binding.
To imitate the binding of a classic stained-glass window for both film and paint, there are three ways:
- Sticking the borders of the fragments with lead tape. Specially sold for stained glass cases,
- Soft wire contouring, see below,
- Bridging contours with contour paste.
Lead adhesive tape is the most real, without quotes, adhesive tape: a tape about 1/8 inch wide of lead foil, an adhesive layer, the same as on ordinary adhesive tape, and a protective film. Unwinding the roll, spread it along the contour, cut it off, remove the protective film, apply it, press it down - that's it. For film stained-glass windows - after gluing, for flooded - before pouring.
The circuit is bent from the wire and glued (film - after, filling - before) PVA. But not simple, but utensils. It is a bit more expensive than “paper”, and the label says: “For gluing glass and porcelain.” Reactive adhesives are not suitable, especially the cyano-acrylate Superglue. It is also unusually fluid to everything, it flows everywhere where it is not needed.
The wire using this technique is traditionally used aluminum and then patinated, as for tiffany, see below. But the author of this article has repeatedly successfully used a copper winding wire in high-strength enamel insulation (enamel wire). It bends more easily, and in radio stores and on radio bases it can be found with isolation of literally all colors of the rainbow, see fig., With a diameter of 0.02 to 2.5 mm round and 1 to 16 mm flat (bus).
A tire is rare and expensive. But each contour bent from a round wire can be leveled and slightly flattened, tightly squeezed in a bench vise between two even flat plates of steel with a thickness of 8-12 mm. Isolation of even almost pre-war sewers does not deteriorate from this.
Especially good are the copper-wire circuits for jellied stained-glass windows on mirrors, as already mentioned. If you need dullness and patina - it is enough to scratch the finished sandpaper, and the exposed copper itself will soon be covered with the most genuine, not induced patina.
Cooking contour paste according to the recipe:
- Tableware PVA - 50 ml.
- Natural black mascara (the best is Dutch) - 20-30 ml.
- Aluminum powder (silverfish) - 30-40 gr.
Introduce the mascara into the PVA, mix thoroughly and in small portions, while stirring, add silver to obtain a creamy paste. If you need a cover for brass - replace the silver with bronze powder. “Leadiness” depends on the ratio of carcass to silverfish, it is checked by a test, completely dried drop.
Pasta is prepared as needed, it is not stored. When using, you need to stir all the time - silverfish pops up. It is applied along the contour with an art brush, gaining abundantly so that it lies on a sausage of equal thickness, then you need a good skill. It is more convenient for a beginner to use a small confectionery syringe gun, but then, even after washing, it is unsuitable for its intended use.
Video: DIY film stained glass window
Fill stained-glass window is performed in the following sequence:
- We prepare the assembly table: an even shield covered with white calico, felt, bike or flannel.
- We put a stencil on it - a numbered primary sketch.
- Degrease the glass - the base and put on the stencil. We take the ends with our hands in new textile gloves, you cannot use the suction cup and leave your fingers on the face.
- We bend, align and flatten the contours, one by one from the left (for left-handed people - the right) upper corner.
- Customize as needed and glue the PVA utensil. Dry the day.
- Fill with paint (see below). Adjacent cells of one color are poured alternately as the previous ones dry up: suddenly leaks, the dried drip is easily removed with a safety razor blade.
- We dry another day after pouring the last cell, insert into the frame of metal - ready to install!
See the following for the preparation of paints, but for now let’s dwell on the fill, this is the most important procedure. Pour paint abundantly soaked with a brush or syringe from the inside along the contour, but in no case touching the border (see. Fig.)! The paint itself should flow into the meniscus in a natural way! If the color turned out to be liquidy, after drying, pour again in the same way.
Fill the stained-glass cell with paint
Pouring / topping up paint in the middle is unacceptable. If you need a thicker spot there, you need to contour it and pour more there. In this case, two filling frames (along the external and internal contours) are done without delay one after another.
The fact is that the “blaze” in the middle will disturb the refraction of light. The “bokeh effect" known to photographers will appear, and a single such element will violate the integrity of the perception of the composition. And if there are a lot of them, then the whole stained-glass window will turn out to be messy.
Homemade stained glass paints are known in four types:
- On PVA and aniline - the easiest to prepare and the most unstable,
- Soviet-rare - on glue BF-2 and paste for ballpoint pens,
- Gelatin-aniline ones are fragile and burn out in direct sunlight, but give an ideal meniscus,
- Nitric oils are the most expensive, but have all the advantages without flaws.
First one. PVA-aniline paints are prepared simply: we dilute two to three times with distilled water 50-100 ml of glassware PVA. Then, in the hot distillate - aniline dye for the fabric according to the instructions for the tablet, and filter through calico, gas or thin women's tights. We drip a few drops into the PVA emulsion, stir, drip a drop on the glass and check the color. Lighted - add a pigment solution, darkened - emulsions.
The second one. BF-2 is diluted in half with acetone and a stick paste with stirring is added dropwise to the solution. Kohler is tested with a test drop, as indicated above. Gives a great meniscus, stand, bright, but - alas! - the turnover of pure acetone is limited, because It is used in artisanal illegal drug production. But it is impossible to replace with a nitro solvent or alcohol.
The third. 6 gr. edible gelatin is diluted in 200 ml. distillate at 40-50 degrees. The aniline dye solution, the same as for the first paint, is added dropwise after cooling to the same temperature and the color is also checked. Strength and resistance to fading can be slightly increased by drying with a transparent acrylic varnish. Anilin with PVA - you can’t swim.
Fourth. We prepare a composition of 60% by volume of transparent furniture nitrolac and 40% 647 of a solvent. Squeeze out the artistic oil paint directly from the tube with pea-sized balls, stir it, check the color for a drop. It is suitable for acrylic coating, while the strength is acrylic, and the resistance is almost unlimited.
- Sometimes the paint does not stir, but curds. This means - the manufacturer is a deceiver: it is not prepared with natural hemp oil.
- Colors can be mixed, as artists do, but following the rules for mixing mineral oil paints. Otherwise it may turn out, as with the paintings of Ozerov.
Video: masterclass on flooded stained glass
Tiffany stained-glass windows are an order or two more complicated in the work of the above, so we will deal with them in stages. There are difficulties and subtleties at all stages, except, perhaps, patination. And neglect of technology on any of them will ruin the work. In addition, you need to acquire some special tools and materials.
The main key to success when working on tiffany is glass cutter, because you need to cut out small curved pieces of glass, and stained glass is very viscous. Therefore, only a diamond cutter is needed. Советчики обходиться роликовым победитовым вряд ли сами способны вырезать стеклышко в форточку.
Алмазный стеклорез для криволинейных резов
Алмазные стеклорезы бывают двух видов: с острием (алмазные карандаши) и с криволинейной режущей гранью. Первые пригодны только для прямых резов, а вторые и для криволинейных. The type of the cutting part and the cutting method are indicated in the certificate for the tool, and by type - the glass cutter with a curved edge is necessarily massive, with a lug for tapping / breaking, see. After the cut with a pencil, the notched piece simply breaks off.
It is undesirable to buy from hand - in 90% of cases they are sold because a diamond is not punctured and resonant cut (see below) does not. There are also files for glass - thin steel strips with diamond coating. They make quite decent curved cuts of large parts (glasses for cabinets, etc.), but they are unsuitable for smalt - you cannot cut a small radius.
- Diamond, so you know, although the record holder in hardness, but fragile. The ancient myth of the slaves who were promised freedom if they break a diamond with a hammer on the anvil is only a myth. Pricks, even dropped on a stone floor. Therefore, the glass cutter must be stored in a regular case and handled with care.
- Glass cutters from different manufacturers are very, very different in cut quality. A sign of good - a case made of genuine leather with felt lining.
Grinder for smalt
Tiffany is soldered in a capillary manner, so an electric / radio soldering iron with a long red copper tip is unsuitable. We need a tool with a bronze nickel-plated tip, it serves only for heating, and the solder does not stick to it during the soldering process. You can recognize this by the initially short white shiny tip (see the figure below with soldering accessories), and they are on sale under the Long Life brand. Power - 100 W, no more and no less.
To finish smalt after cutting, it is desirable to have a glass grinder, see fig. But it costs a lot, and in any case, for fine-tuning, you need three grinding bars number 220-240 and a width of 12-20 mm: square, semicircular and triangular. The latter is also necessary in the presence of a machine for sampling sharp internal corners, in drawings, say, with leaves, it is very difficult to do without them.
- For smalt volumetric stained-glass windows, a grinder is absolutely necessary. It is impossible to accurately withstand the required bevel angles of the side faces with your hands.
- It is also desirable to have a diamond file of lenticular section - for fine-tuning the same corners on very small fragments.
The bars must be sought from natural pomegranate or corundum, heavy and very strong. “Sandy” miracles of powder technologies do not sharpen glass, but they themselves grind about it. But you need to grind smalt even on the best whetstone under a layer of water, for which the whetstone is immersed in a bowl, baking sheet or some other suitable tray when turning.
We make a spatula for applying patina ourselves - from a toothpick and a piece of dense foam rubber with a width of 5-6 mm and a thickness of 3-4 mm. We put it on a toothpick and fix it with a thin soft wire.
Smalt length tiffany can be made of ordinary glass, painting it, as for "jellied". But it is better to buy a special stained glass. Translucent, dull or milky. In sheets, it is expensive, but the same companies sell cheap combat (valuable material), but we don’t need much.
- It is not necessary to order cutting immediately for smalt according to the sketch. Expensive, and can’t be perspired later. You need to cut smalt yourself.
- Since tiffany is collected on soldering, the temperature of which the paint does not hold, it must first be completely assembled from plain glass, and then filled. It is possible on both sides with different colors, which will give an overflow of the picture when viewed from different sides.
Foil for framing smalt - folia - is sold in art stores specifically for stained glass along with lead tape. The item is a 4-7 mm ribbon roll. Cutting a sheet of foil into strips is most undesirable: the stained-glass window will be sloppy.
Materials for soldering work are shown in the figure, there is also a soldering iron. Pay attention to the inscription: "Without rosin." Filamentous solder with rosin inside (harpius) is not suitable for soldering stained glass. Soldering flux (this is a jar in the figure) is needed with a brown or other semi-active, for soldering electronics. The remains of the active flux (with phosphoric acid, etc.) cannot be removed from the binding, and it will eventually be corroded.
Typically, POS-61 solder is recommended for tiffany soldering due to its fusibility - 190 degrees. From ordinary tin-lead solders (240-280 degrees), smalt sometimes crack. But POS-61 is fragile, very soft. There is also POS-61M with a copper additive, 192 degrees, but it is only slightly stronger.
The best solders for tiffany are with cadmium additives: POSK-50-18 (145 degrees, in the figure) and Avia-1 (200 degrees, strength - like duralumin). POSK-50-18 is weaker, but still much stronger than POS-61 / 61M. It is inexpensive, unlike Avia-1, it is easily accessible.
Now in art and construction stores they sell forge patina of various kinds. Buy better fluid, ready to eat. Preparing the powder composition itself will only be a little cheaper, but difficult, and the quality of the coating will be worse.
Sketch / Stencil
When choosing a drawing, you need to take into account the features of the technology and its weaknesses. S-, N- and deep U-shaped bends of smalt edges are unacceptable: due to the difference in TCR of glass and metal, smalt on them will begin to come out and fall out over time. Perfect smalt is a region bounded by convex smooth curves. If a non-monotonic bend is needed, it must be assembled from pieces, even if of the same tone, see Fig. Suddenly, the finished composition, due to the binding, turns out to be flickering / clumsy - you can’t do anything, you need to change or modify the picture.
Note: drawings for stained-glass windows are a separate area of pictorial art. On the Internet there are many ready-made for different techniques, but if you want your own unique, you need to turn to a stained-glass artist or look for creativity in yourself.
First you need to make the base, the same as for the jellied stained-glass window. With the right cut, the remainder breaks off from the slightest push, so you do not need to immediately bring it to the overhang: after an incision, a thin rail is slipped under the glass for the cut, and slightly press on the remainder with your finger. Not broken off - you can tap on the weight.
Try cutting a piece of regular window glass. If the cut is creaky, a scratch is visible, and for a break it is necessary to tap several times, it is too early to tackle smalt.
When cut correctly, the glass emits a quiet, thin ringing, and the crack is not visible at all. For a break, a slight pressure is enough or a little poke from below. To obtain such a cut, it is necessary to maintain the angle of inclination of the tool in the direction of the cut (about 45 degrees, or according to the specification for the glass cutter) and keep it strictly perpendicular in the transverse direction.
The second condition is a strictly constant pressure force. Skill in angle and strength should be worked out to full automatism when cutting lines of any kind. This is called - to put a hand.
Note:The exact angle and pressure are individual for each diamond glass cutter. Therefore, glaziers-aces do not use other people's tools and do not offer them for rent.
An example of the location of auxiliary cuts
But that is not all. A crooked cut on a curve by itself will never crack, even though you crack. And the side will leave and, according to Murphy's First Law, just where it hurts the most. What to do?
Auxiliary cuts along the tangent, the thicker the more curved, see Fig. The general rule is that the deflection arrow between two adjacent auxiliary cuts should not exceed two glass thicknesses. By the way, this circumstance must also be taken into account when developing a stencil. Therefore, if you order a drawing to an artist, then determine immediately the stencil. However, good masters attach stencil to the drawing without any.
If there is an angle on smalt, a tangent to the least convex side is required from its beak. An important conclusion follows from the foregoing: do not try to cut many monochromatic smalt from a large piece at once. Almost all expensive material will go to waste. In general, smaltes are cut one at a time as the stencil fills, see below.
Here the question arises: how to trace the smalt patterns? The glass cutter is not a razor blade or an assembly knife, it is rather plump. But for this we need screen scissors. The width of the third, middle, blade just takes into account the resulting indentation.
Before starting a set of stained glass, the stencil on the assembly board is fixed with even rails on the left (for left-handed people - on the right) and at the top. From the corresponding far upper corner, smalt is laid, see left in Fig.
Smaltes are cut strictly one at a time, otherwise the whole set will crawl out before reaching half. Cutting one, bring it up and calibrate it according to the stencil (you need an indent inward from the contour of 0.5-0.7 mm for soldering). Then they wrap it with folia and roll its edges with a round piece of wood or plastic (middle pos.) After rolling with the same smoothing machine, iron the side face, for internal sharp corners it is convenient to use a school plastic ruler with a wedge-shaped edge or a plastic knife from a set of disposable tableware, and be rolled.
Now smalt is put into place already before soldering, tightly pressed to the previous ones or the side, and the template for the next is checked by stencil. If necessary, cut the template with curved manicure scissors, and only then return to the glass with a glass cutter. On the filled part of the visible gaps between smalt should not be, right pos. in fig.
Note:the best stained-glass windows are obtained when typing on a photocopy machine, covered with calico or bike. The slightest click is immediately visible.
Compression and fluxing
By stacking all smalt, the composition is gently squeezed horizontally with slats now on the right (left) and bottom. If smalt at the same time begin to bulge upward, they smooth and fold the folia, press down from above. After this proceed to fluxing.
The used smalt templates are laid out next to the shield in accordance with the composition and numbering. Particular accuracy is not necessary, if only the pieces are not mixed up. Now fragments are transferred to this intermediate stencil, starting from the angle opposite the initial one, i.e. in reverse assembly order. So it is necessary that the flux at the ends of the smalt does not dry out.
Then the smalt is transferred one by one back to the working stencil in the same way as it was collected. In this case, the folic frame is smeared with a thin layer of flux (it has the consistency of petroleum jelly) with a match or a toothpick. Having assembled the composition again in the old place, they are again crimped, but the right (left) and lower rails are now fixed with carnations. You can start soldering.
The main condition for soldering is not to do much at once. Due to the difference in the TCR of glass and metal during overheating, the entire composition may swell and fall apart. At one time, you need to solder the area in one or two male palms, then allow to cool, and solder further. Solder in the stacking order.
Solder tiffany capillary. First, along the contour of the next smalt, drip pieces of solder thread the width of a soldering iron tip into the seam with a step of 1-1.5 cm. The operation is carried out on weight, without touching the thread of solder and sting folia. This is painstaking, debilitating and responsible work, so take your time, take breaks to relax.
Then the seams are soldered. Each drop or sausage of solder on the seam is heated until it all at once goes into the seam and spreads inside it. If the flux evaporates and burns out earlier, this may not happen, so flux without stingy, but without dirt. The missing flux during the soldering process can be added, then only by cooling the brazed area. It is not necessary to scatter the set, the flux can be applied on top and slightly warmed to flow into the seam.
In the frame, the composition is also soldered. It is not necessary to glue on epoxy or acrylic: because of the difference in TCR, the stained-glass window will not last more than 5-7 years. Make a frame from a brass or bronze corner.
The frame should be solid, one solder connection in the patch at the junction of the circuit is permissible. Therefore, the U-shaped profile is not suitable: how can you put a stained-glass window into it? True, you can slip it into pieces under a stained-glass window, but then you need solder scarves in the corners, which will be visible on the finished product. However, again - a matter of taste. You can immediately coordinate the pattern with the scarves.
The inside of the frame is cleaned with a school eraser to a shine (the semi-active flux does not dissolve the oxide film on brass) and thoroughly washed with a cotton swab dubbed with plenty of alcohol. Then they wipe with a new, which has not yet been used, microfiber cloth for glasses.
Now the frame is inside, and the edge of the stained-glass window is smeared with flux from the face and side, the frame is applied to the composition, and soldered, like smalt, in pieces. After cooling, the stained-glass window is carefully turned over, a flux is applied to the wrong gap between the edge of the composition and the frame, warmed up to spread, and the gap is soldered. It remains to rinse off the residual flux and patinate.
It is now no longer necessary to hail liters of alcohol to remove flux residues: detergents for dishes do their job perfectly. Especially encouraging circumstance for the non-drinker: from "him, darling" during alcohol washing, such a spirit ...
Washed stained glass (already stained glass) in the bathroom under the shower with a foam sponge soaked in detergent. Particularly sticky flux residues are removed with a toothbrush. They do not lend themselves immediately, so a simple operation is painstaking: you can’t press hard or cut it off. Often, a stained glass window has to be soaked for 24 hours in a bathtub into which a whole bottle of Fairy is plumped, until the flux deposit is sour and descends under the sponge.
Types of stained glass technologies
In the world there are a large number of stained glass technologies. Each of them has its own characteristics. But all of them are united by one goal - they play the role of decorative decoration. Stained glass is one of the most ancient ways of decorating. In ancient times, the technique was used to decorate cathedrals and temples. English stained glass style was especially popular at that time. Now, stained glass items can be found in the interior of any apartment.
The most popular types of stained glass:
- classic stained glass
- tiffany technique,
- painted stained glass
- photo printing
- faceted stained glass window,
- frosting glass
- 3 D stained glass window,
Each technology is complex in its own way. The most popular handmade technology is the jellied stained-glass window. Decoration using this technology can be performed independently at home. This technique can be confused with painting glass, but these two techniques have a significant difference. Namely, the stained-glass window has a relief contour.
Materials for work
The technology for stained glass painting is simple, although at first glance it might seem that this is not for everyone. In fact, if you take the painting seriously and get acquainted with the principle of work, you can understand that there is nothing complicated in it at all.
For the manufacture of stained glass on their own, a minimum set of materials and tools is needed. Only a few components of the set will be enough and the next masterpiece of the interior will appear in the house.
For work you will need:
- several brushes of different thickness and size,
- stained glass paints
- glitters and pigments,
- structural varnishes and pastes,
- palette knife,
- cotton buds and discs,
- a palette for additional shades,
- sponge or cloth
- glass or object with a glass surface.
This is a complete list of materials. For beginners and working with children, you can do with brushes, contour and stained glass paints.
Central to this list is the outline. It depends on him the quality of the composition. It is a small tube with a pointed tip. The contour can be of different colors, gold, silver, with sparkles. It can be alkyd or water based.
If you intend to work with children, giving preference is in favor of a water-based circuit. It is completely harmless to the baby’s health. A contour outline of a sketch of the future composition. His task is to hold the paint so that they do not spread. All contour lines must be completed. Otherwise, the paint will spread and may spoil the final result.
An important role in the work are paints. They should be selected not only by color, but also by composition. There are two types of stained glass paints. They can be solvent, containing a solvent and acrylic, water-based.
Solvents are more convenient in work. They spread less on the surface, do not wear off and are not washed off by water. In addition, they are on sale in a wider range of colors. They are brighter than acrylic. When working with solvent-based paints, it is important to know that they are toxic. Therefore, they are not suitable for working with children.
Acrylic paints are less resistant to washing off. Therefore, after painting, the product made with acrylic must be fired. To do this, it is placed in the oven, where the firing process takes place at a temperature of 150 - 170 degrees. Acrylic is recommended for use with children and people prone to allergic reactions.
In addition, if you wish, you can familiarize yourself with how to make stained glass paints at home.
Production of stained glass paints
If you perform the stained glass window together with the child, he will be even more interested when the process starts from the very beginning. Namely, with the manufacture of paints for stained glass. Vintage paints can be prepared in several ways. Каждый из рецептов в приготовлении прост, к тому же очень экономичен. Материал в домашних условиях получится совершенно безопасным и качественным.
Основой для изготовления красок могут стать:
Все способы приготовления очень просты.
Основа клей ПВА
Перед началом изготовления, необходимо подготовить подходящую посуду. Для этой цели подойдет любая небольшая емкость, например, пустая баночка из-под гуаши. Capacities should be taken as much as it is supposed to prepare shades for the composition. In each empty container you need to pour 2 tbsp. l PVA glue. Next, you need to add a coloring pigment, that is, a dye, to the glue. As a pigment, you can choose any dye.
Possible coloring pigment:
- fabric or batik paint,
- gel core
- construction color
- gouache or watercolor
- food coloring for confectionery or eggs,
- watercolor paints.
Any pigment is suitable for manufacturing. Add it to the glue must be gradually, carefully stirring. If the paint becomes pale, add pigment. If the shade turns out to be very bright, you can fix this by adding a little glue. For the effect of decorativeness and gloss of the future picture, in PVA, you can add loose shadows or sparkles.
Gelatin based paint is completely safe. It is perfect for working with children. In cooking, it is very simple. For it, you need to take 6 g of edible gelatin and dilute it with a small amount of water. After the gelatin has cooled, you need to add a coloring pigment. It is very convenient for her to work, she is thick enough and does not spread at all, and she also dries very quickly. Gelatin can be used to colorize a vase, glasses or plates. But she has one minus. It is not water resistant. Therefore, gelatin should be fixed with varnish.
Solvent and adhesive
Solvent based paint is not recommended for children. Its components are: BF-2 glue, acetone, coloring pigment.
All components must be taken in 1 part. First put glue in a glass container, add acetone to it and mix thoroughly. Add pigment to the mixture.
With your own hands you can cook not only paint. The circuit can also be made independently.
For him you will need:
- 50 ml PVA glue (for bonding porcelain and glass),
- 20-30 ml of black mascara,
- 30 - 40 mg of silverfish or aluminum powder.
In a glass container you need to mix glue and mascara, add silver. A mixture of the consistency of sour cream of a lead color should be obtained. The contour, prepared independently, in quality will not differ at all from the store.
DIY stained glass technique
There are several rules for how to make stained glass on glass with your own hands. Whatever stained glass paints are chosen, the rules for working with them are the same.
Rules for the manufacture of stained glass:
- The contour must be applied to the glass with quick, clear movements, while pressing on the tube.
- Containers with paint cannot be kept open for a long time. Stained-glass paints dry very quickly.
- Do not dilute solvent based paints. Only water-based paints can be diluted.
- If it is necessary to remove the circuit, wait until it is completely dry. You can remove it only with a sharpened knife.
- The pattern on the glass should be horizontal. In this position, the picture will be of higher quality.
- Before painting, glass must be degreased. Ethyl alcohol or dishwashing detergent is perfect for this.
Observing the general recommendations for the implementation of the stained-glass window technique, you can not worry about the quality of work.
In order to understand the technique of art painting, you need to familiarize yourself with the stained-glass windows with your own master class.
Imitation of stained-glass window
Before starting the execution of the contour jellied stained-glass window, it is necessary to determine the composition. The sketch must first be done on paper. You can buy it ready, print it on a computer or use a stencil. Once the future composition has been determined, you can begin to work. But before you start, you need to make sure that the glass lies in an even horizontal position. It should be remembered that the slightest skew in either direction of the base contributes to the chaotic spreading of colors. In addition, it will damage the quality of the stained glass window.
master class of jellied stained glass:
- Glass or glass surface must be thoroughly degreased.
- Directly under the glass you need to lay a sketch or a stencil.
- The silhouettes of the image need to be outlined, while different parts of the picture must be marked with the corresponding colors or numbers that define the color.
- After the circuit is completely dry. You can start painting with flowers. You should always start with one color. For example, apply yellow to all areas of the painting marked by him. Wait until the yellow color is completely dry.
- Thus, alternately apply all the colors of the composition.
The main thing at the stage of applying paints is to prevent their spreading. To do this, you do not need to draw a lot of paint on the brush. It is best to apply it in a small portion of the glass.
If when applying one color it seemed that it was not saturated enough or lay uneven on the surface, it is necessary to wait until the first coat of paint has completely dried and apply it again.
Where to begin?
Choose a picture, or draw it yourself, go to the store, on the advice of a cheerful seller to buy a bunch of unnecessary materials and ... FILL UP EVERYTHING?
Creating stained-glass windows, however, is not the easiest thing. Even the easiest way, film, requires certain knowledge and skills. After all, what is a profession - is a knowledge of the nuances! So if you want to know how to make stained glass with your own hands, refer to professionals with professional nuances, do not enter into statements about the ease of the process, which does not require preparation, this is not.
Go to courses in your city to workshops for artists, buy special literature, watch video tutorials. Although on the Internet quite ridiculous recommendations do-it-yourself stained glass product, for example.
Therefore, the phrase “contact the professionals” will never lose its relevance. Turn to professionals, this will save you your time and your money.
The artist Irina Kiseleva has long been engaged in stained-glass windows. Her professional career began with work at a stained glass manufacturing company. The artist leads an electronic magazine where she shares tips with readers, and she also has a training video course, which was created specifically for those who want to learn how to create stained-glass windows.
Training course of Irina Kiseleva reviews
Irina Terekhova presented a photo of her work and words of gratitude to the author of the course (source of information vse-v-tvoih-rukah.ru):
I liked the poems of M. Tsvetaeva:
“Do not forbid yourself to create, even if it comes out crookedly, no one can repeat your ridiculous motives!” M. Tsvetaeva
See 120 photos with ideas for using stained glass in the interior HERE.
Good luck in your endeavors, Always with you, Here
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